A2acd; B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C1
Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Justification: E. arenarius qualifies as Endangered under criterion A due to continuing decline in the number of plants and the extent of habitat. Repeat photographs indicate a decline of >50% over the past 60 years. It also qualifies under criterion B due to a relatively restricted range (extent of occurrence = 450 km²; area of occupancy =20 km²), occurrence at less than five locations and ongoing decline. The overall population is <2,500 mature individuals and decline is >20% over two generations so it also qualifies under criterion C.
This species is distributed in a small area of the Eastern Cape in South Africa. Populations are found from Nanaga in the west to Canon Rocks in the east. The main subpopulations occur near the town of Alexandria. Recorded from 100 to 200 m asl.
The population size of E. arenarius is estimated to be 850-1,500 mature individuals. Most plants occur in the dense dune vegetation that is difficult to survey. Scattered individuals occur in agricultural lands and cleared dunes.
The major threat to this species is removal by collectors. This has been the main cause of decline over the past 50 years. Some have also been destroyed by habitat destruction (bush clearing to make way for pastures).