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Encephalartos msinganus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos msinganus Vorster
Common Name(s):
English Msinga Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C1+2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Justification:
Qualifies as Critically Endangered due to its very small extent of occurrence and area of occupancy (both well under 10 km²), occurrence in effectively one location, small population size (100-200 plants and possibly even fewer), and continuing decline.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in a small area in the Msinga district, in the drainage area of the Buffels River, which runs into the Tugela, east of Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Occurs at an elevation of 900 to 1,200 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0.5
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):900
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size of E. msinganus was estimated as 100-200 mature individuals. Recent reports (Hurter 2008) suggest that only scattered individuals survive in nature.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:100-200
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species grows in short grassland on steep north-facing slopes, usually amongst boulders in scrub clumps. Plants are less commonly found on sandstone cliff faces, more or less in direct sunlight. Unconfirmed reports suggest that plants growing on different aspects had slight differences in leaf morphology.
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): E. msinganus is severely threatened due to poaching for ornamental purposes. Small cycad populations often experience reproductive failure and it is expected to occur in E. msinganus. Habitat destruction is also a general problem in the area.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. It does not occur in any protected areas. There are numerous plants in cultivation so there is good potential for ex situ propagation.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Hurter, J. 2008. Encephalartos msinganus in danger of extinction. Encephalartos 94: 25-27.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and Threatened Plants of KwaZulu-Natal and Neighbouring Regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Services, Pietermaritzburg.

Vorster, P. 1997. Focus on Encephalartos msinganus. Encephalartos 51: 4-9.


Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos msinganus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41894A10572506. . Downloaded on 21 November 2017.
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