|Scientific Name:||Encephalartos laevifolius Stapf & Burtt Davy|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2acde+4acde ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.|
E. laevifolius has declined across its range. Spectacular declines have been recorded for subpopulations in Kaapsehoop and Mariepskop, due to poaching, and subpopulations in Swaziland have also declined. All subpopulations appear to be affected by a fungal infection of the female cones, which destroys all the seeds. Overall the species population is thought to have declined by more than 80% of the last three generations and these declines are continuing at a similar rate.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The main subpopulations of E. laevifolius are found within the catchment of the Crocodile River, near the Kaapsehoop Range west of Nelspruit. Isolated groups are present on the Amajuba high points above Sudwala Caves. About 130 km further to the north, the Mariepskop mountains host a disjunct subpopulation of about four groups of the same species. Isolated smaller colonies are found to the west of this locality in the Trichardtsdal area. It is also present near Pigg's Peak in Swaziland. Further to the south it occurs/used to occur east of Helpmekaar and on the KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape border in the Umtamvuna river valley. Recorded to occur from 950 up to 1,800 m asl.|
Native:South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga); Swaziland
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population has undergone significant declines, and despite its wide range is thought to only number between 700 and 820 mature individuals.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in grassland or low shrubs on steep rocky slopes. Most localities are high altitude sites (1,300 to 1,500 m), with frequent mists. Like many other Encephalartos species, E. laevifolius appears to be adapted to a three to five year burning cycle. Plants grow in full sunlight in grassland or scrub.|
|Generation Length (years):||70|
|Use and Trade:||The species is used in traditional medicine.|
|Major Threat(s):||Signs of stem harvesting for traditional medicine have been observed. Some evidence of plant pathogens have been reported. In addition, E. laevifolius is threatened due to habitat loss caused by alien invasive plants and timber plantations. This species has also been drastically affected by over-collecting for ornamental purposes.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations occur in the Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve, the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve, the Starvation Creek Nature Reserve in South Africa and in Malolotja Nature Reserve in Swaziland.|
Emery, A.J., Lötter, M. and Williamson, S.D. 2002. Determining the conservation value of land in Mpumalanga. Available at: http://www.dwaf.gov.za/sfra/SEA/usutu-mhlathuze%20wma/Biophysical%20Component/Mpumalanga%20Biobase.pdf.
Grobbelaar, N. 2002. CYCADS - with special reference to the southern African species. Privately published by Nat Grobbelaar, Pretoria, South Africa.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Osborne, R. 1989. Focus on Encephalartos laevifolius. Encephalartos 19: 2-8.
Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and Threatened Plants of KwaZulu-Natal and Neighbouring Regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Services, Pietermaritzburg.
|Citation:||Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos laevifolius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41891A10571116.Downloaded on 22 February 2018.|
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