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Encephalartos inopinus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos inopinus R.A.Dyer
Common Name(s):
English Lydenburg Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) A2acd; B2ab(i,ii,iv,v); C1+2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Justification:
This species has experienced a rapid decline. Helicopter surveys show numbers dropping from 677 in 1992 to 113 in 2001 (83% decline) and to 81 plants in 2004 (further 28%). Stan Rogers (pers. comm.) from the Limpopo Provincial Government reported in 2006 that the species might be extinct in the wild as poaching had continued after 2004.
Date last seen: 2004
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found along the Steelpoort and Olifant rivers and adjacent catchment areas in the Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Recorded between 600 to 800 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
South Africa (Limpopo Province)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:7
Number of Locations:3
Lower elevation limit (metres):600
Upper elevation limit (metres):800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There may be no plants left in the wild, see rationale.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:81
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs sparsely, mainly in thick bush on north-facing steep slopes or rocky outcrops. They grow in skeletal soil or no soil, on steep to precipitous slopes in gorges on dolomite. The rainfall ranges from a meagre 375 mm to 750 mm annually. Some plants hang from inaccessible narrow ledges high up in gorges. The vegetation type is referred to as Dolomite Mountain Bushveld.
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):200

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species has suffered much from the activities of collectors and in addition, large troops of baboons damage immature cones and this could explain the absence of seedlings.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Mucina, L. and Rutherford, M.C. (eds). 2004. Vegetation Map of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland: Shapefiles of basic mapping units. Cape Town, South Africa

Osborne, R. 1992. Focus on Encephalartos inopinus. Encephalartos 31: 4-8.


Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos inopinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41890A10570662. . Downloaded on 19 November 2017.
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