Encephalartos hirsutus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos hirsutus P.J.H.Hurter
Common Name(s):
English Venda Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) A4acd; B2ab(iii,iv,v); C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
The original population (at the time of description) was estimated at 400-500 plants. In 2004, only 219 plants were found in two localities as part of helicopter surveys, with most of the plants occurring in one site. Stan Rogers (pers. comm.) from the Limpopo Provincial government reported in 2006 that ground rangers could not locate these plants and that they may also be gone. This has yet to be confirmed. The area of occupancy for the remaining plants was small - estimated to be only about 5 km².
Date last seen: 2004
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:E. hirsutus is known from three separate localities in the Soutpansberg region of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Recorded from 800 to 1,000 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
South Africa (Limpopo Province)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:5
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):800
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:If still extant, the population is very small, see under rationale.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0-219
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Plants grow exposed on south-east-facing quartzite cliffs, in moist semi-deciduous mixed scrub. The rainfall is between 350-650 mm per annum. The vegetation type is mainly Mountain Bushveld.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened due to over-collecting for ornamental purposes.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Plants occur (or occurred) in the Makuya National Park which forms part of the Kruger National Park.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Hurter, P.J.H. and Glen, H.F. 1996. Encephalartos hirsutus (Zamiaceae): a newly described species from South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 62(1): 46-48.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos hirsutus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41889A10570208. . Downloaded on 19 August 2018.
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