|Scientific Name:||Encephalartos heenanii R.A.Dyer|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.|
The very small number of plants in Swaziland means that the only viable population is in the Songimvelo reserve in South Africa. The population in South Africa and Swaziland has declined in the past 30 years. The extent of occurrence is 300 km², the area of occupancy only 5 km², and the remaining population is severely fragmented hence it qualifies for listing as Critically Endangered under criterion B.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species occurs in the northeastern mountainous areas of Swaziland and in the adjacent areas of the Mpumalanga province in South Africa. Recorded from 750 to 1,750 m asl.|
Native:South Africa (Mpumalanga); Swaziland
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Swaziland it is estimated that 20 plants remain in the wild. The estimates for plants in the wild in South African are about 400.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs on very steep slopes in short grassland in deep valleys between indigenous forests. The vegetation type is Montane Grassland.|
|Generation Length (years):||70|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened due to over-collecting for ornamental purposes and the few remaining plants could suffer from reproductive failure. Furthermore, habitat destruction as a result of the planting of pine plantations has also affected these plants because fire is prevented in this area and the plants are possibly adapted to a fire cycle.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations are protected in the Somgimvelo Nature Reserve and in the Malolotja Nature Reserve.|
Emery, A.J., Lötter, M. and Williamson, S.D. 2002. Determining the conservation value of land in Mpumalanga. Available at: http://www.dwaf.gov.za/sfra/SEA/usutu-mhlathuze%20wma/Biophysical%20Component/Mpumalanga%20Biobase.pdf.
Golding, J. (ed.). 2002. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network.
Grobbelaar, N. 2002. CYCADS - with special reference to the southern African species. Privately published by Nat Grobbelaar, Pretoria, South Africa.
Hurter, J. 1994. Focus on Encephalartos heenanii. Encephalartos 40: 4-7.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
|Citation:||Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos heenanii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41888A10569760.Downloaded on 23 March 2018.|
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