Potamochoerus larvatus 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Suidae

Scientific Name: Potamochoerus larvatus
Species Authority: (F. Cuvier, 1822)
Common Name(s):
English Bushpig
French Potamochère, Potamochère du Cap

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-12-18
Assessor(s): Seydack, A.H.W.
Reviewer(s): Meijaard, E.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern as the species is relatively widespread, common, and there are no major threats believed to be resulting in a significant population decline.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Bushpig ranges from southern Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea southwards through East Africa and eastern and southern Democratic Republic of the Congo to Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. There are isolated populations in Angola (and nearby from the lower Zaire River in DRC). In southern Africa, they are absent from Namibia, though they may occur in the Caprivi Strip. In South Africa, they are found in the northern and eastern parts of the country (and neighbouring Swaziland) to southern KwaZulu-Natal. There is then a break in their distribution and they reappear as isolated populations in the Eastern Cape and Western Cape provinces (Seydack 2013). Introduced on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands (Mayotte) off the east coast of Africa (Vercammen et al. 1993).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Botswana; Burundi; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia (Caprivi Strip); Rwanda; Somalia; South Africa; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Introduced:
Comoros; Madagascar; Mayotte
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):4000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Population densities in southern Cape forests, South Africa, range between 0.3 and 0.5/km2 (Seydack 2013).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Bushpig are associated with relatively dense vegetation types with available food, cover and water, in forests and riverine or xeric scrub forests and thicket formations. The species occurs over a wide range of altitudes. In East and North-east Africa, they are recorded from the Ethiopian Highlands (Harenna Forest), the highlands of the Albertine Rift (where Red River Hogs have never been recorded), and Mt Kilimanjaro (to 4,000 m). They also occur in areas given over to subsistence farming or to agricultural crops such as sugar cane, maize, peanuts and beans, and may become a serious problem in such areas (Seydack 2013). Their omnivorous diet is spatiotemporally dispersed and relatively large home ranges were reported (Southern Cape Forests: mean 7.2 km2, ranging between 3.8 and 10.1 km2: Seydack 2013).
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Bushpigs are subject to bushmeat hunting of variable intensity in countries where they occur.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major known threats. They may be subject to localized declines and range contractions in some areas due to large-scale habitat destruction or as a result of hunting for crop protection and local consumption (Vercammen et al. 1993). In southern Africa, they are sporadically subject to official population control measures when they feed on crops. However, their preferred habitat, nocturnal habits and relatively high reproductive potential are such that it has proved generally difficult to eliminate Bushpig from larger tracts of relatively densely vegetated habitat (Seydack 2013). Nevertheless, with increasing human population pressure Bushpig populations are likely to become increasingly threatened in the future.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Bushpigs are present in several well-managed protected areas across their range.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Seydack, A.H.W. 2013. Bushpig Potamochoerus larvatus. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), Mammals of Africa, pp. 32-36. Bloomsbury, London.

Vercammen, P., Seydack, A.H.W. and Oliver, W.L.R. 1993. The Bush Pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus and P. porcus). In: W.L.R. Oliver (ed.), Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 93-101. IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group - IUCN/SSC Hippo Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.


Citation: Seydack, A.H.W. 2016. Potamochoerus larvatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41770A44140926. . Downloaded on 31 July 2016.
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