|Scientific Name:||Neophocaena asiaeorientalis|
|Species Authority:||(Pilleri & Gihr, 1972)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
Neophocaena phocaenoides (G. Cuvier, 1829)
Neophocaena phocaenoides subspecies asiaeorientalis (Pilleri & Gihr, 1972)
Neophocaena phocaenoides subspecies sunameri Pilleri & Gihr, 1975
The recognition of two externally distinct morphological forms of Finless Porpoises as separate biological species (Neophocaena phocaenoides and N. asiaeorientalis) was accepted recently when it was demonstrated that the two forms are reproductively isolated (and likely have been separated since the last glacial maximum) even though they are sympatric in a fairly large area of East Asia (Wang et al. 2008). Differences in the external morphology of the dorsal aspect of the two species are distinguishable even amongst free-ranging animals (Wang et al. 2010) and intermediate animals have never been reported even though several hundred to thousands of carcasses have been examined. The two species also clearly differ in craniometry (Amano et al. 1992, Jefferson 2002). Within the Narrow-ridged species, two subspecies are retained: the Yangtze Finless Porpoise, N. a. asiaeorientalis, and the East Asian Finless Porpoise or Sunameri, N. a. sunameri (Gao 1991; Wang 1992a,b; Gao and Zhou 1995). Where Narrow-ridged Finless Porpoises have been studied fairly well (e.g. Yoshida et al. 1995, 2001; Yoshida 2002; Jefferson 2002), there is evidence to suggest subpopulation structure.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cde ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Wang, J.Y. & Reeves, R.|
|Reviewer/s:||Taylor, B.L. & Hammond, P.S.|
Although the data are far from sufficient to make a rigorous quantitative assessment of population trend for N. asiaeorientalis throughout its range, the scale of threats is large enough over enough of the range to suspect and infer a decline of at least 30% over the last three generations (about 50 years, see Taylor et al. 2007). The factor most responsible for such a decline would be incidental mortality in fisheries, but the loss and degradation of habitat (including chemical pollution) and vessel strikes (at least in the Yangtze River system; Turvey et al. submitted) are likely contributing factors as well. As the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission concluded after a review of the species (both N. phocaenoides and N. asiaeorientalis) in 2005 (IWC 2006), “human populations adjacent to the finless porpoise’s habitat are increasing in size and becoming more industrialised so the expectation should be that anthropogenic pressures will continue and intensify.” None of the threats has been seriously addressed in any part of the species’ range, even though threat levels are likely increasing.
Partly because of their small size, phocoenids are exceptionally vulnerable to incidental mortality in gillnets (e.g. Jefferson and Curry 1994). Incidental mortality in fishing gear is either known or presumed to occur throughout the range of Narrow-ridged Finless Porpoises (Reeves et al. 1997, IWC 2006).
There is clear evidence of a declining trend in two major parts of this species’ range. In the Inland Sea of Japan, a decline of nearly 70% was estimated over a period of 22 years, from 1976-1978 to 1999-2000 (Kasuya et al. 2002). There is also evidence of a rapid decline in recent decades in the Yangtze River and adjoining lake systems of China (Zhao et al. 2008, Wang 2009); the subspecies there (N. a. asiaeorientalis), which was classified as Endangered in 1996 under the IUCN 1994 Red List Categories and Criteria, is currently being reassessed to determine whether it should be uplisted to Critically Endangered.
Therefore, as is true of the other species of finless porpoise (N. phocaenoides), the Narrow-ridged species qualifies for Vulnerable A2cde, considering that the causes of the suspected/inferred decline in population size--bycatch and mortality from vessel strikes (both interpreted here as “exploitation”), decline in habitat quality, and possibly pollution--have not ceased and are not well understood.
|Range Description:||The type specimen was from the Yangtze River, Kiangsu [=Jiangsu] Province, China, ~129 km (=80 miles) northwest of Shanghai (Pilleri and Gihr 1972).
In general, the species occurs in a narrow strip of shallow (usually <50 m deep) coastal water around the western Pacific Ocean from the Taiwan Strait to the waters of northern China, Korea and northern Honshu, Japan. (Note that a Narrow-ridged Finless Porpoise was discovered recently in the waters of Okinawa Island, Japan (Yoshida et al. 2010), but it probably represents an extralimital stray rather than an extension of the species’ range.) The distribution also includes a few estuaries and rivers (e.g., the N. a. asiaeorientalis subspecies appears to be found exclusively in the Yangtze River system; Gao 1991, Gao and Zhou 1995). Human coastal development and other activities already may have substantially reduced and fragmented the distribution of Finless Porpoises (Reeves et al. 1997).
N. a. sunameri – Coastal waters from the Taiwan Strait, including the western coast of Taiwan (mainly the Matsu and Chinmen Islands), through the East China Sea north to the Bohai/Yellow Sea in China and the waters of Korea and Japan (Gao 1991, Gao and Zhou 1995). Korean and Japanese populations are geographically separate (Shirakihara et al. 1992, Yoshida et al. 2001, Yoshida 2002).
N. a. asiaeorientalis – Middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (= Chang Jiang), where it ranges (or did until recently) to 1,600 km upstream, i.e., to the gorges above Yichang (200 m above sea level). The range includes Poyang and Dongting lakes and their tributaries, the Gan Jiang and the Xiang Jiang (Gao 1991, Gao and Zhou 1995). The subspecies is thought to be restricted to fresh water.
The map shows where the species may occur based on oceanography. The species has not been recorded for all the states within the hypothetical range as shown on the map. States for which confirmed records of the species exist are included in the list of native range states. States within the hypothetical range but for which no confirmed records exist are included in the Presence Uncertain list.
Native:China; Japan; Korea, Republic of; Taiwan, Province of China
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
These porpoises are small and cryptic and therefore difficult to survey. Estimates of abundance have been made for only a few areas (IWC 2006). Estimates from the early 2000s are available for five subpopulations in Japanese waters, distinguished on the basis of skull morphology and mtDNA variability (Yoshida et al. 1995, Yoshida 2002), as follows: 3,807 (CV=16%) in Ariake Sound/Tachibana Bay (Shirakihara and Shirakihara 2002); 289 (CV=19%) in Omura Bay (Shirakihara and Shirakihara 2002); 3,743 (CV=24%) in Ise/Mikawa Bay (Yoshida 2002); 3,387 (CV=33%) in Chiba/Sendai Bay (Amano et al. 2003); and 7,572 (CV=17%) in the Inland Sea (Shirakihara et al. 2007). Most of the estimates were summarized in IWC (2006). For the Inland Sea subpopulation, Kasuya et al. (2002) recorded a decline in sighting rate of 18–100% for 18 tracklines surveyed in 1976–78 and again in 1999–2000. The declines for 11 of these tracklines were statistically significant. Using abundance indices calculated by multiplying the density indices (no. individuals/cruise distance) and area size of each stratum, an overall decline of 69% is inferred over the 22 years between the two sets of surveys (T. Kasuya pers. comm. 2007, data from Kasuya et al. 2002).
Surveys in western Korean waters (Yellow Sea) in the early 2000s estimated 21,532 (CV=39%) finless porpoises in offshore waters and 5,464 (CV=20%) in inshore waters (Zhang et al. 2005). The Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) considered these estimates to be negatively biased (IWC 2006, p. 223).
Based on surveys from 1984 to 1991, Zhang et al. (1993) estimated that there were about 2,700 porpoises in the Yangtze River, while Zhou et al. (2000) estimated that only 700 remained in the lower reaches between Nanjing and Hukou between 1989 and 1992. Wang et al. (2000) concluded that finless porpoise abundance in the Yangtze River had declined considerably and that there could be fewer than 2,000 animals (although this was not based on a rigorous assessment). A two-vessel survey of the Yangtze mainstem in 2006 yielded an estimate of 1,225 (CV 0.13) which, when combined with earlier estimates for Poyang and Dongting Lakes, was interpreted as implying an overall number of about 1,800 in the Yangtze system (Zhao et al. 2008). In some portions of the river where porpoises had been reported to be present in the past, none were seen during the 2006 survey. Estimates of the annual rate of decline of Yangtze finless porpoises have varied from 5 to 7.3% (see Wang 2009 for a review).
There are no abundance estimates for finless porpoises in Chinese marine waters other than Hong Kong (IWC 2006), which would be for N. phocaenoides and not N. asiaeorientalis.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Narrow-ridged Finless Porpoises are found mainly in coastal waters, including shallow bays, possibly mangrove swamps, estuaries, and some large rivers. However, they can also occur in shallow waters (<200 m deep) quite far from shore (up to 240 km). They appear to have a strong preference for waters with a sandy or soft bottom (Jefferson and Hung 2004).
Small fishes, cephalopods, and crustaceans (mainly demersal species) form the diet of finless porpoises (see Jefferson and Hung 2004).
Finless porpoises, like other phocoenids (Jefferson and Curry 1994), are extremely susceptible to entanglement in gillnets, and large numbers have been, and continue to be, killed in many parts of their range. In Japan Narrow-ridged Finless Porpoises become entangled in a variety of types of fishing gear. Changes in fishing methods may have reduced the incidental catch in some areas such as western Kyushu (Kasuya 1999), but substantial numbers are still being taken in gill nets and other fishing gear. A total of 114 specimens were collected in Japan during 1985–1992 from western and north-eastern Kyushu including parts of the western Inland Sea (Shirakihara et al. 1993): 84 of them had been killed incidentally in fisheries, 25 had been found dead on the beach or in the sea, and there was no information on the other five. Fishing gears that killed the 84 porpoises were bottom-set gill nets (58), surface gill nets (17), trap nets (7), trawl nets (1) and drifting (ghost) nets (1). Such fishing gears aree common in Japan and probably kill finless porpoises off other coasts, although usually such catches go unreported. Yang et al. (1999) reported that finless porpoises were the most frequently captured cetaceans in fishing gear along the Chinese coast and estimated that more than 2,000 were taken in 1994, mainly in trawl, gill, and stow nets. In the waters of western Taiwan, including the Matsu and Chinmen Islands (western Taiwan Strait), a considerable number of finless porpoises are taken in trammel nets, trawl nets, stow nets, and other gear (J.Y. Wang unpublished). Given the numbers and types of net fisheries in Chinese coastal waters (e.g. Zhou and Wang 1994, Yang et al. 1999), there are serious concerns about the level of bycatch of both finless porpoise species. Although illegal, electric fishing became widespread in the Yangtze River during the 1990s, and it probably kills porpoises outright and contributes to the depletion of their prey (Reeves et al. 2000).
In some parts of their range, there is an aversion to eating finless porpoises (Kasuya 1999, J.Y. Wang unpublished). However, there is a long history of porpoises taken incidentally being sold for human consumption in at least parts of Japan (e.g., Mizue et al. 1965) and on the Korean peninsula (IWC 2000). From an analysis of the species composition of odontocete products in Korean markets during 2003–2004, it was estimated that the true catch of finless porpoises in Korean waters during this period was probably about four times the officially reported catch of 142 animals (Baker et al. 2006).
A recent survey of levels and drivers of human-caused mortality carried out in 27 fishing settlements along the middle-lower Yangtze channel identified three main categories of observed porpoise deaths: (1) interaction with fishing gear, (2) vessel strikes, and (3) unknown cause (S.T. Turvey pers. comm. 2011). A total of 344 dated porpoise mortality events directly observed by informants between 1950 and 2008 were reported, including 75 porpoise deaths from 1989–1998 and 147 from 1999–2008. This change was driven by the greater number of deaths attributed to vessel strikes (19 to 35) and unknown causes (31 to 94) in the more recent decade. Comparison of the reported mortality with the estimated abundance suggests that the fraction of individuals removed from the declining porpoise population in the Yangtze has quadrupled over the course of two decades. Turvey concluded that entanglement in rolling hook long-lines is probably responsible for the greatest number of porpoise deaths in fishing gear and that vessel strikes and other anthropogenic factors, such as electrofishing, are likely now the dominant and increasing causes of mortality in the Yangtze.
The causes of an apparent decline in porpoise numbers in the Inland Sea of Japan are not fully understood but include incidental mortality in fisheries as well as various forms of habitat degradation (IWC 2000, 2006). Parts of the coastal regions of the Inland Sea are highly developed and industrialized so the associated threats of habitat loss and pollution are suspected to have had some (undetermined) level of impact
|Conservation Actions:||Neophocaena phocaenoides (meant at the time of listing to include N. asiaeorientalis) is listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and in Appendix II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS). Management measures are needed to reduce the threats, particularly incidental mortality in fisheries and vessel strikes, but also to protect (or if possible restore) the environmental conditions needed for these animals to survive and reproduce.|
Amano, M. 2002. Finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 432-435. Academic Press.
Amano, M., Miyazaki, N. and Kureha, K. 1992. A morphological comparison of skulls of the finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides from the Indian Ocean, Yangtze River and Japanese waters. Journal of the Mammalogical Society of Japan 17: 59-69.
Amano, M., Nakahara, F., Hayano, A. and Shirakihara, K. 2003. Abundance estimate of finless porpoises off the Pacific coast of eastern Japan based on aerial surveys. Mammal Study 28: 103-110.
Baker, C. S., Lukoschek, V., Lavery, S., Dalebout, M., Yong-Un, M., Endo, T. and Funahashi, N. 2006. Incomplete reporting of whale, dolphin and porpoise 'bycatch' revealed by molecular monitoring of Korean markets. Animal Conservation 9: 474-482.
Gao, A. 1991. Morphological differences and genetic variations among the populations of Neophocaena phocaenoides. Nanjing Normal University.
Gao, A. and Zhou, K. 1995. Geographical variation of external measurements and three subspecies of Neophocaena phocaenoides in Chinese waters. Acta Theriologica Sinica 15: 81-92.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Miyazaki, N. and Tatsukawa, R. 1994. Detection of butyltin compound residues in the blubber of marine mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 28: 607–612.
Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Mizuno, T. and Tatsukawa, R. 1995. High accumulation of toxic butyltins in marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters. Environmental Science and Technology 29: 2959-2962.
IWC. 2000. Report of the standing sub-committee on small cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2 (Supplement), 235–263.
IWC. 2006. Report of the sub-committee on small cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8: 221-232.
Jefferson, T.A. 2002. Preliminary analysis of geographic variation in cranial morphometrics of the finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 10: 3-14.
Jefferson, T.A., and Curry, B.E. 1994. A global review of porpoise (Cetacea: Phocoenidae) mortality in gillnets. Biological Conservation 67: 167–183.
Jefferson, T. A. and Hung, S. K. 2004. Neophocaena phocaenoides. Mammalian Species 746: 1-12.
Kannan, N., Tanabe, S., Ono, M. and Tatsukawa, R. 1989. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18: 850-857.
Kasuya, T. 1999. Finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides (G. Cuvier, 1829). In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of Marine Mammals, pp. 411-442. Academic Press, London, UK.
Kasuya, T., Yamamoto, Y. and Iwatsuki, T. 2002. Abundance decline in the finless porpoise population in the Inland Sea of Japan. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 10: 57-65.
Le, T. H. L., Takahashi, S., Saeki, K., Nakatani, N., Tanabe, S., Miyazaki, N. and Fujise, Y. 1999. High percentage of butyltin residues in total tin in the livers of cetaceans from Japanese coastal waters. Environmental Science and Technology 33: 1781-1786.
Liu, R., Wang, D. and Zhou, K. 2000. Effects of water development on river cetaceans in China. In: R. R. Reeves, B. D. Smith and T. Kasuya (eds), Biology and conservation of freshwater cetaceans in Asia, pp. 40-42. Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.
Mizue, K., Yoshida. K. and Masaki, Y. 1965. Studies on the little toothed whales in the west sea area of Kyushu-XII. Neomeris phocaenoides, so-called Japanese "SUNAMERI", caught in the coast of Tachibana Bay, Nagasaki Pref. Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University 18: 7-29.
Pilleri, G. and Gihr, M. 1974. Contribution to the knowledge of the cetaceans of southwest and monsoon Asia (Persian Gulf, Indus Delta, Malabar, Andaman Sea and Gulf of Siam). Investigations on Cetacea 5: 95-153.
Reeves, R.R., Jefferson, T.A., Kasuya, T., Smith, B.D., Wang, D., Wang, P., Wells, R.S., Wursig, B. and Zhou, K. 2000. Report of the Workshop to Develop a Conservation Action Plan for the Yangtze River Finless Porpoise, Ocean Park, Hong Kong, 16-18 September 1997. In: R. R. Reeves and B. D. Smith and T. Kasuya (eds), Biology and conservation of freshwater cetaceans in Asia, pp. 67-80. Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.
Reeves, R.R., Smith, B.D., Crespo, E.A. and di Sciara, G.N. (compilers) 2003. Dolphins, Whales and Porpoises: 2002-2010 Conservation Action Plan for the World's Cetaceans. IUCN/SSC Cetacean Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Reeves, R.R., Wang, J.Y. and Leatherwood, S. 1997. The finless porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides (G. Cuvier 1829): a summary of current knowledge and recommendations for conservation action. Asian Marine Biology 14: 111-143.
Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World. Systematics and Distribution. Special Publication Number 4. The Society for Marine Mamalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.
Shirakihara, K. and Shirakihara, M. 2002. Survey of Ariake/Tachibana Bay, Omura Bay and Inland Sea. Survey of Marine Animals: finless porpoises, pp. 27–52. Biodiversity Centre, Fujiyoshida., Fujiyoshida.
Shirakihara, K., Shirakihara, M. and Yamamoto, Y. 2007. Distribution and abundance of finless porpoise in the Inland Sea of Japan. Marine Biology 150: 1025-1032.
Shirakihara, K., Yoshida. H., Shirakihara, M. and Takemura, A. 1992. A questionnaire survey on the distribution of the finless porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides, in Japanese waters. Marine Mammal Science 8: 160-164.
Shirakihara, M., Takemura, A. and Shirakihara, K. 1993. Age, growth, and reproduction of the finless porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides, in the coastal waters of western Kyushu, Japan. Marine Mammal Science 9: 392-406.
Smith, B. D., Sinha, R. K., Zhou, K., Chaudhry, A. A., Renjun, L., Wang, D., Ahmed, B., Haque, A. K. M. and Sapkota, K. 2000. Register of water development projects affecting Asian river cetaceans. In: R.R. Reeves, B. D. Smith, and T. Kasuya (eds), Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia, pp. 22–39. IUCN/SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Taylor, B. L., Chivers, S. J., Larese, J. and Perrin, W. F. 2007. Generation length and percent mature estimates for IUCN assessments of Cetaceans. Southwest Fisheries Science Center.
Turvey, S.T., Moore, J.E., Risley, C.L., Barrett, L.A., Hao, Y., Zhao, X., Zhou, K. and Wang, D. Submitted. Can local ecological knowledge be used to assess status and extinction drivers in a threatened freshwater cetacean?
Wang, D. 2009. Population status, threats and conservation of the Yangtze finless porpoise. Chinese Science Bulletin 54: 3473-3484.
Wang, D., Liu, R., Zhang, X, Yang, J., Wei, Z., Zhao, Q. and Wang, X. 2000. Status and conservation of the Yangtze Finless Porpoise. In: R. R. Reeves, B. D. Smith, and T. Kasuya (eds), Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Cetaceans in Asia, pp. 81–85. IUCN SSC Occasional Paper No. 23, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Wang, J.Y., Frasier, T.R., Yang, S.C. and White, B.N. 2008. Detecting recent speciation events: the case of the finless porpoise (genus Neophocaena). Heredity 101: 145-155.
Wang, J.Y., Yang, S.C., Wang, B.J. and Wang, L.S. 2010. Distinguishing between two species of finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides and N. asiaeorientalis) in areas of sympatry. Mammalia 74.
Wang, P. 1992a. On the taxonomy of the finless porpoise in China. Fisheries Science 11(6): 10-14.
Wang, P. 1992b. The morphological characters and the problem of subspecies identifications of the finless porpoise. Fisheries Science 11: 4-9.
Yang, G., Zhou, K. Y., Xu, X. R. and Leatherwood, S. 1999. A survey on the incidental catches of small cetaceans in coastal waters of China. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 10(6): 713-716.
Yoshida, H. 2002. Population structure of finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) in coastal waters of Japan. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 10: 35-42.
Yoshida, H., Higashi, N., Ono, H. and Uchida, S. 2010. Finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) discovered at Okinawa Island, Japan, with the source population inferred from mitochondrial DNA. Aquatic Mammals 36: 279-283.
Yoshida, H., Shirakihara, K., Shirakihara, M. and Takemura, A. 1995. Geographic variation in the skull morphology of the finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides in Japanese waters. Fisheries Science 61: 555-558.
Yoshida, H., Yoshioka, M., Shirakihara, M. and Chow, S. 2001. Population structure of finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) in coastal waters of Japan based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Journal of Mammalogy 81: 123-130.
Zhang, C. I., Park, K. J., Kim, Z. G. and Sohn, H. 2005. Abundance estimation of finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides from ship surveys in the west coast of Korea. IWC Scientific Committee Document SC/57/SM15. Available from IWC Secretariat. Cambridge, UK.
Zhang, X., Liu Renjun, Zhao Qingshong, Zhang Guocheng, Sei Zhuo, Wang Xiaoqiang and Yang Jian. 1993. The population of finless porpoise in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. Acta Theriologica Sinica 13: 260-270.
Zhao, X., Barlow, J., Taylor, B.L., Pitman, R.L., Wang, K., Wei, W., Stewart, B.S., Turvey, S.T., Akamatsu, T., Reeves, R.R. and Wang, D. 2008. Abundance and conservation status of the Yangtze finless porpoise in the Yangtze River, China. Biological Conservation 141: 3006-3018.
Zhou, K. and Wang, X. 1994. Brief review of passive fishing gear and incidental catches of small cetaceans in Chinese waters. Report of the International Whaling Commission 15: 347-354.
Zhou, K., Yang, G., Gao, A., Sun, J. and Xu, X. 2000. Abundance and distribution of finless porpoises in the Nanjing-Hukou section of the lower Yangtze River. In: R. R. Reeves, B. D. Smith and T. Kasuya (eds), Biology and conservation of freshwater cetaceans in Asia, pp. 91-96. Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.
|Citation:||Wang, J.Y. & Reeves, R. 2012. Neophocaena asiaeorientalis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 March 2014.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided|