|Scientific Name:||Viverra zibetha|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
Viverra tainguensis Sokolov, Rozhnov & Pham Chong, 1997
|Taxonomic Notes:||Six subspecies have been proposed (Corbet and Hill, 1992) but a taxonomic revision is needed. The validity of the new species V. tainguensis has been seriously questioned (Veron and Walston 2003) and it is now generally considered a synonym of V. zibetha (e.g., Wozencraft 2005). No critical re-examination of the holotype, as distinct from the original description has, however, yet been published.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Duckworth, J.W., Wozencraft, C., Wang Yin-xiang, Kanchanasaka, B. & Long, B.|
|Reviewer/s:||Belant, J. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Near Threatened through circumstantial evidence of trapping-driven declines in heavily hunted and fragmented areas (notably China) and even within some large tracts of little-encroached habitat and the known heavy trade in the species as wild meat. Throughout most if its range non-selective snaring and other forms of trapping, hunting with dogs and projectile hunting are at very high levels. As a ground-dwelling species it is therefore exposed to heavy trapping pressure in much of its range. It remains widely distributed, retains large populations over much of its range, occurs in many protected areas, tolerates some degree of habitat modification (perhaps a lot more than is generally apparent today, given that the most degraded areas are among the most heavily hunted), and it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing as Vulnerable under criterion A. Currently, region-wide habitat conversion pressures are sufficiently high in the level lowlands to threaten ground-dwelling civets (e.g. Large-spotted Civet), but Large Indian Civet has a wide altitudinal range, with large populations in the hills and mountains. Therefore habitat loss and fragmentation rates are not sufficient to drive densities declines sufficient for listing as Vulnerable. Because it is such a widespread species, it is difficult to determine the population trajectory across its entire range. The overall population decline rate past, present and future is difficult to judge but it is unlikely that it exceeds 30% in three generations, i.e. sufficient to list this species as ‘Vulnerable’. This species could become Vulnerable if habitat conversion (particularly for rubber plantations in hill areas of northern South-east Asia) and fragmentation continues at current rates, and if regional demand for civet meat in luxury restaurants, particularly in China and Viet Nam, remains high and the international trade remains effectively unconstrained.
|Range Description:||This species is found in Lao PDR (Duckworth, 1997), Peninsular Malaysia (Azlan, 2003; Kawanishi and Sunquist, 2004), Thailand (Rabinowitz, 1991; Austin and Tewes, 1999), Viet Nam (Boonratana , 2004; Long, and Minh Hoang 2006), Cambodia (J.L. Walston pers. comm.), China (Anhui, Shaanxi, Ganus, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xisang, Guangxi, Gunagdong, Hainan, Fujian Zhejiang and Jiangsu), northeast India, Myanmar (Than Zaw et al. in press), Nepal, Bhutan, Singapore, (Pocock 1939, Corbet and Hill, 1992; Wozencraft, 2005). Introduced to the Andaman Islands (Lever, 1985).|
Native:Bhutan; Cambodia; China; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species lives at a naturally fairly high density for a carnivorous animal and was almost universally considered common by historical collectors (Pocock 1939). It remains common in much of its range: it is possible to see several in a single night of spotlighting on foot even in heavily-hunted Lao PDR ( Duckworth 1997), it is among the most common mammals camera-trapped across Cambodia (J. L. Walmart pers. comm.) and Myanmar (Than Zaw et al. in press), and is one of the most commonly recorded civets in Viet Nam (Roberton et al. in prep.). However, in some areas (such as Southeastern China) it has become effectively extinct over large areas (M. W. N. Lau pers. comm.). Few other parts of the range are as severely impacted by habitat fragmentation and degradation coupled with hunting. It is likely that populations are widely reduced in the most heavily hunted parts of its range where habitat has been heavily fragmented, e.g. much of northern Viet Nam and lowland Lao PDR. Recent camera-trapping in the Nakai–Nam Theun national protected areas, Central Lao PDR, found rather few animals (Johnson and Johnston 2007), suggesting the possibility for very heavy ground-level trapping (as occurs in much of this area) to reduce populations greatly even in large tracts of little-encroached forest.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species has been recorded in primary forest (both evergreen and deciduous), secondary forest and plantations (Duckworth et al. 1997; Azlan, 2003) and is often said to have even wider habitat use (e.g. Lekagul and McNeely 1977). It has been recorded up to 1,600 m (Than Zaw et al. in press). It is solitary, nocturnal although there are occasinal day-time records of active animals (e.g. Than Zaw et al. in press) and it is usually active on the ground (Lekagul and McNeely, 1977, Duckworth 1997). An adult male was radio-tracked in Thailand and had a home-range of 12 km² (Rabinowitz, 1991). Occupancy of suitable habitats varies within Indochina.
Its diet consists of a wide range of animals, including fish, birds, lizards, frogs, insects, scorpions (and other arthropods) and crabs, as well as poultry and garbage (Lekagul and McNeely 1977).
In Lao PDR, this species is found in tall forest, both evergreen and deciduous, and adjacent degraded areas, over at least 200 to 1000 m, with few recent records from below 400 m (Duckworth et al. 1999); however, there are many records from other countries, e.g. Myanmar, below this altitude (Than Zaw et al. in press). They are believed to breed throughout the year, with two litters per year, and two to four young per litter (Lekagul and McNeely 1977). Breeding and resting dens are usually holes in the ground which were originally dug by other species. It was recorded in secondary forest, that was logged in the 1970s, and which surrounds a palm estate, in Malaysia in 2000-01 by Azlan (2003).
Like Viverricula and Civettictis, but to a generally much lesser extent, this civet has been used as a source of civetone, an oil-like substance secreted by the perineal gland used by the animal for territorial marking.
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat loss and degradation are a threat to this species (Schreiber et al., 1989). Across its range, there has been loss and degradation of forests through logging and conversion of forests to non-forest land-uses. It is hunted for food, probably throughout its range, and certainly in Viet Nam, China, Lao PDR, Myanmar, NE India and Thailand, and for scent glands in Viet Nam and China. Ground-living small carnivores are exposed to high levels of non-specific hunting, particularly with snares, throughout most of South-east Asia. Dogs are widely likely to be a problem for this ground-dwelling species, even though it is largely within burrows by day. Snaring and other forms of ground-level trapping occur in much of its range, including Lao PDR (Duckworth et al. 1997), Viet Nam, and Thailand, with trapping found both inside and outside protected areas (Kanchanasaka, pers. comm.). There has been an increased demand for civet meat in Chinese and Viet Namese markets (Bell et al. 2004; Lynam et al. 2005).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is totally protected in Malaysia under the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 (WPA 1972) (Azlan, 2003). This species is listed on Category II of the China Wildlife Protection Law (1988) (Li et al, 2000). China listed it as ‘Endangered’ under criteria A2acd, and it is a class II protected State species (due to trapping for food and scent glands). It is protected in Thailand, Viet Nam and Myanmar (GMA Small Carnivore Workshop, 2006). It is found in several protected areas throughout its range (Duckworth, 1997; Azlan, 2003; Kawanishi and Sunquist, 2004). The population of India is listed on CITES Appendix III.|
Azlan, J. M. 2003. The diversity and conservation of mustelids, viverrids, and herpestids in a disturbed forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Small Carnivore Conservation 29: 8-9.
Bell, D., Roberton, S. and Hunter, P. R. 2004. Animal origins of SARS coronavirus: possible links with the international trade in small carnivores. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 359: 1107-1114.
Boonratana, R. 2004. A photograph of a remarkable Viverra from Vietnam. Small Carnivore Conservation 31: 20.
Corbet, G. B. and Hill, J. E. 1992. Mammals of the Indo-Malayan Region: A Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Duckworth, J. W. 1997. Small carnivores in Laos: a status review with notes on ecology, behaviour and conservation. Small Carnivore Conservation 16: 1–21.
Dudgeon, D. and Corlett, R. 2004. The Ecology and Biodiversity of Hong Kong. Friends of the Country Parks & Joint Publishing, Hong Kong.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Johnson, A. and Johnston, J. 2007. Biodiversity monitoring and enforcement project in the Nam Theun 2 watershed. Final report. Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane, Laos.
Kawanishi, K. and Sunquist, M. E. 2004. Conservation status of tigers in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biological Conservation 120(3): 329-344.
Lekagul, B. and Mcneely, J. A. 1988. Mammals of Thailand. White Lotus Press, Bangkok, Thailand.
Li, Y. M., Gao, Z., Li, X., Wang, S. and Jari, N. 2000. Illegal wildlife trade in the Himalayan region of China. Biodiversity and Conservation 9: 901-918.
Long, B. and Minh Hoang. 2006. Recent records of and notes on the conservation of small carnivores in Quang Nam province, central Vietnam. Small Carnivore Conservation 34 / 35: 39–46.
Lynam, A. J., Maung, M., Po, S. H. T. and Duckworth, J. W. 2005. Recent records of Large-spotted Civet Viverra megaspila from Thailand and Myanmar. Small Carnivore Conservation 32: 8-11.
Schreiber, A., Wirth, R., Riffel, M. and Van Rompaey, H. 1989. Weasels, civets, mongooses, and their relatives. An Action Plan for the conservation of mustelids and viverrids. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Wozencraft, W. C. 2005. Order Carnivora. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Third Edition, pp. 532-628. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Duckworth, J.W., Wozencraft, C., Wang Yin-xiang, Kanchanasaka, B. & Long, B. 2008. Viverra zibetha. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 March 2014.|
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