Prionodon linsang

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CARNIVORA PRIONODONTIDAE

Scientific Name: Prionodon linsang
Species Authority: (Hardwicke, 1821)
Common Name(s):
English Banded Linsang
Taxonomic Notes: The two Prionodon species are now known to be part of a separate family, the Prionodontidae (Gaubert and Veron 2003, Gaubert and Cordeiro-Estrela 2006, Barycka 2007). Four subspecies have been described, but a taxonomic revision is needed (Van Rompaey 1993). There are four recognized subspecies: Prionodon linsang linsang from southern Myanmar, southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra; P. linsang gracilis from Java and Borneo; P. linsang fredericae from Bangka Island; and P. linsang interlinus from Belitung Island (Van Rompaey 1993).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Duckworth, J.W. & Azlan, M.J.
Reviewer(s): Belant, J. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Justification:
This species is listed as Least Concern, although this species may be undergoing at least localised population reductions there is no evidence or suspicion of declines at a rate sufficient to qualify it even as Near Threatened at this time. There is no evidence that it is a target species in hunting or trade, so inference of decline would come by association with habitat trends. Available information suggests significant tolerance of encroachment and even use of plantations, implying that population decline rates will be lower than forest loss rates. In any case, the species' wide altitudinal range puts it outside the altitudinal bands of major Sundaic forest conversion (reviewed in BirdLife International 2001).

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is found in Peninsular Malaysia (Ratnam et al., 1995; Azlan, 2003; Kawanishi and Sunquist, 2004; Laidlaw pers. comm.), southern Myanmar (Than Zaw et al, in press), Borneo (Wells et al., 2005) and Sumatra (Holden, 2006), southern Thailand, peninsular Malayasia, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, as well as on Bangka and Belitung Islands (Van Rompaey 1993). On Java, it has been suggested to be probably restricted to the mountains in the west (e.g. Mt. Halimun, see Suyanto, 2003), but there are two historical specimens from the Ijang plateau in East Java (held in Museum für Naturkunde, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin), and, given very low levels in recent decades of small carnivore survey in Java (see, e.g., Riffel 1991), the species could still occur on other mountains in Java. On Borneo and Sumatra, it is probably widespread, although it is unclear whether the species occurs in Central Kalimantan swamps (not reported from Sebangau or Tanjung Puting). It was found up to 1100 m on Java by Bartels (1941) . This species was recorded up to 1800 m in Mount Kinabulu National Park in Borneo Payne et al. (1998). It was recorded by Azlan (2003) in Jerangau Forest Reserve (04 55.5 N, 103 05.7 E) in Peninsular Malaysia in 2000-01. In Sumatra, it has been found up to 2,400 m (Holden 2006) in Kerinci Seblat NP.

The most northerly record is at 15° 20'N (Steinmetz and Simcharoen 2006). The record at 17° 54'N (Humphrey and Bain 1990) in northern-central Thailand is probably erroneous (Steinmetz and Simcharoen 2006). On the basis of portrayal in picture-guides alone, this species can be readily confused with spotted linsang.
Countries:
Native:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar; Thailand
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population status is poorly known, but various authors have considered this species uncommon or rare (Chasen, 1940; Ellerman and Morrison-Scott, 1961; Davis, 1962; Lim, 1973; Lekagul and McNeely, 1977; Van Rompaey 1993).

In Myanmar, it is known from only two individuals recorded in 1878 by Blanford (Van Rompaey pers. comm.), also from 5 recent records in southern Myanmar (Than Zaw et al. in press); the records included presence at all surveyd sites within its historical range. It is considered rare and localized in Thailand (Chasen, 1940; Ellerman and Morrison-Scott, 1961; Davis, 1962; Lim, 1973; Lekagul and McNeely 1977, Steinmetz and Simcharoen 2006). In Peninsular Malaysia it is widespread at all elevations but is nowhere common (Medway, 1969), two years of camera trapping revealed only a single photo in Taman Negara National Park (Kawanishi and Sunquist 2004), partly because it is small and semi-arboreal, making it difficult to capture on camera. Morphs may be confused with other species (Azlan 2006). On Java, this species is considered rare (or difficult to observe) by Bartels (1941). On Borneo, it is also infrequently recorded (Medway, 1965; Payne et al, 1985). In Sumatra (Holden 2006), it was photo trapped infrequently, but this is not indicative of rarity. In summary, throughout its range, it is widespread, but due to its small size and semi arboreal nature, it has been infrequently recorded, and thus its population status is difficult to assess.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Little is known about the ecology of this species. It has been recorded in primary and secondary forest and occasionally in human inhabited areas (Van Rompaey, 1993; Ratnam et al., 1995; Azlan, 2003; Kawanishi and Sunquist, 2004; Wells et al., 2005). It has been found up to 2,400 m (Bartels, 1941; Payne et al., 1998;. Holden, 2006).

It is nocturnal and generally arboreal, though it does come to the ground in search of food; its diet consists of birds, tree rats, snakes, and any other small animal it can catch (Lekagul and McNeely 1977; Van Rompaey pers. comm.). An analysis of stomach contents by Lim (1973) indicates that this species hunts mostly in disturbed forests and forest edge habitats (Lekagul and McNeely 1977). According to Lim (1973) it may respond favorably to secondary growth and ecotonal habitats. It is found in primary and secondary forest, plus fringe and occasionally human inhabitated areas (Van Rompaey pers. comm.). It breeds in February and August, with litters of two young (Nowak, 1999). It has lived up to ten years and eight months in captivity (Jones, 1982). This species was recorded from primary lowland rainforest in Mount Kinabulu National Park by Wells et al (2005). It was recorded in disturbed habitat in Malaysia by Ratnam et al (1995).

In northeastern Peninsular Malaysia and in Sarawak, it is found in secondary forest, including forest adjacent to palm plantations (Azlan pers. comm.).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss and degradation were assessed as a threat to this species (Schreiber et al., 1989), and deforestation has been said to be a threat to this species in Thailand (Van Rompaey 1993), however, little is known on its tolerance to disturbance. In Borneo, the overall density of civets (including the banded linsang) in logged forests was found to be significantly lower than in primary forests (Heydon and Bulloh, 1996). Various observers have found the species in edge and degraded habitats, both historically and recently, with Lim (1973) even speculating that it benefits from secondary growth and ecotonal areas. This makes it difficult to infer a population trend based around the recent and ongoing rapid forest degradation over much of its range. Old-growth forest has been cleared very rapidly throughout the lowland Sundaic region in the last 20 years (e.g. BirdLife International, 2001; Holmes, 2000; Jepson et al. 2001; McMorrow and Talip, 2001; Lambert and Collar, 2002; Curran et al. 2004; Fuller, 2004; Eames et al. 2005, Aratrakorn et al. 2006; Kinnaird et al. 2003) but this has primarily been in the lower altitudes; this species' wide altitudinal range means that significant proportion of the population is outside these areas of very rapid clearance. Also in Thailand, live animals have been traded in the past, as seven were reported by CITES in 1980 (from Thailand to USA) (Van Rompaey 1993), in the last decade, however, there has been no commercial trade reported through CITES.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on CITES Appendix II. In Thailand, the Wild Animals Preservation Protection Act (WAPPA, 1992) protects this species from hunting and regulates trade (Van Rompaey, 1993). In Peninsular Malaysia and in Sabah it receives full protection, but in Sarawak it is only partially protected (Aslan pers. comm.). It is a totally protected species in Myanmar (WPA 1994). This species has been recorded in some protected areas (Ratnam et al., 1995; Azlan, 2003; Wells et al., 2005; Azlan and Engkamat, 2006). Field surveys, ecological studies and monitoring of threats are needed. This species was recorded from Mount Kinabulu National Park in Borneo in 2003-04 (Wells et al. 2005). It was also recorded from Temengor Forest Reserve in Malaysia by Ratnam et al. (1995). This species has also been recorded in Lambir Hill National Park in Sarawak (Azlan and Engkaamat, 2006). It was recorded from Jerangau Forest Reserve in Peninsular Malaysia in 2000-01 (Azlan, 2003).

Bibliography [top]

Aratrakorn, S., Thunhikorn, S. and Donald, P. F. 2006. Changes in bird communities following conversion of lowland forest to oil palm and rubber plantations in southern Thailand. Bird Conservation International 16: 71-82.

Azlan and Engkamat. 2006. Camera trapping and conservation in Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54(2): 405-411.

Azlan, J. M. 2003. The diversity and conservation of mustelids, viverrids, and herpestids in a disturbed forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Small Carnivore Conservation 29: 8-9.

Barycka, E. 2007. Evolution and systematics of the feliform Carnivora. Mammalian Biology 72(5): 257-282.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

Chasen, F. N. 1940. A handlist of Malaysian mammals; a systematic list of the mammals of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and Java, including the adjacent small islands. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 15: 1-209.

Curran, L.M., Trigg, S.N., Mcdonald, A.K., Astiani, D., Hardiono, Y.M., Siregar, P., Caniago, I. and Kasischke, E. 2004. Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo. Science 303: 1000-1003.

Earnest, K. A. and Mares, M. A. 274. Spermophilus tereticaudus. Mammalian Species 274: 1-9.

Fuller, D. O. 2004. Deforestation is out of control in Indonesia. Environmental Review 11: 8-16.

Gaubert, P. and Cordeiro-Estrela, P. 2006. Phylogenetic systematics and tempo of evolution of the Viverrinae (Mammalia, Carnivora, Viverridae) within feliformians: Implications for faunal exchanges between Asia and Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 266-278.

Gaubert, P. and Veron, G. 2003. Exhaustive sample set among Viverridae reveals the sister-group of felids: the linsangs as a case of extreme morphological convergence within Feliformia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 270: 2523-2530.

Holden, J. 2006. Small carnivores in central Sumatra. Small Carnivore Conservation 34/35: 35-38.

Holmes, D. 2000. Deforestation in Indonesis: a review of the situation in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi. World Bank, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Jepson, P., Jarvie, J. K., Mackinnon, K. and Monk, K. A. 2001. The end for Indonesia's lowland forests? Science 292: 859.

Kawanishi, K. and Sunquist, M. E. 2004. Conservation status of tigers in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biological Conservation 120(3): 329-344.

Kinnaird, M. F., Sanderson, E. W., O'Brien, S. J., Wibisono, H. T. and Woolmer G. 2003. Deforestation trends in a tropical landscape and implications for endangered large mammals. Conservation Biology 17(1): 245–257.

Lambert, F. R. and Collar, N. J. 2002. The future for Sundaic lowland forest birds: long-term effects of commercial logging and fragmentation. Forktail 18: 127-146.

Lim, B. L. 1973. The banded linsang and the banded musang of West Malaysia. Malaysian Natural History Journal 26: 105-111.

Mcmorrow, J. and Talip, M. A. 2001. Decline of forest area in Sabah, Malaysia: Relationship to state policies, land code and land capability. Global Environmental Change-Human & Policy Dimensions 11: 217-230.

Riffel, M. 1991. An update on the Javan Ferret-Badger Melogale orientalis (Horsfield 1821). Mustelid and Viverrid Newsletter 5: 2-3.

Schreiber, A., Wirth, R., Riffel, M. and Van Rompaey, H. 1989. Weasels, civets, mongooses, and their relatives. An Action Plan for the conservation of mustelids and viverrids. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Steinmetz, R. and Simcharoen, S. 2006. Observations of Banded Linsang Prionodon linsang at the northern edge of its range, with a review of recent northerly records. Small Carnivore Conservation 34/35: 29-31.

Suyanto, A. 2003. Mammals of Gunung Halimun National Park, West Java. Puslit-Biologi-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.

Van Rompaey, H. 1993. The Banded linsang, Prionodon linsang. Small Carnivore Conservation 9: 11-15.


Citation: Duckworth, J.W. & Azlan, M.J. 2008. Prionodon linsang. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 October 2014.
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