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Procyon cancrivorus 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Procyonidae

Scientific Name: Procyon cancrivorus
Species Authority: (G.[Baron] Cuvier, 1798)
Common Name(s):
English Crab-eating Raccoon
Spanish Mapache Lavador, Cangrejera, Mayuato

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-03-01
Assessor(s): Reid, F., Helgen, K. & González-Maya, J.F.
Reviewer(s): Duckworth, J.W.
Justification:
This species is listed as Least Concern because although naturally rare in some areas of its range and seemingly limited in its adaptability to human activity, it has a wide distribution range and it is probably stable throughout South America where viable areas exist.
Previously published Red List assessments:
  • 2008 – Least Concern (LC)
  • 1996 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Crab-eating Raccoon is distributed from southern Costa Rica to northern Argentina (east border of the Andes), on Trinidad, and possibly on a number of other Caribbean islands. Within Costa Rica and immediately east of the border (i.e. Panama), it is sympatric with the Northern Raccoon P. lotor (Eisenberg and Redford 1999, de la Rosa and Nocke 2000). Reputed occurrence in northern Colombia is not confirmed because it is easily confused with P. lotor (González-Maya et al. 2011) but recent craniometric evidence suggest both species are present in the Caribbean region (Marín et al. 2012); neither external features nor recent records are provided. Recent records have expanded altitudinal range up to 2,350 (Marín et al. 2012).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guyana; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2350
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The Crab-eating Raccoon is naturally rare in some areas of its range and it does not seem as adaptable to human activity as is the Northern Raccoon, although it is probably stable throughout South America where viable areas exist. In the Paraguayan chaco, its density in secondary growth cattle land is estimated not to exceed 6.7 individuals/km² (Glatston 1994).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is nocturnal, active at ground level, and solitary. Its diet consists of molluscs, fish, crabs, insects, and amphibians (Emmons and Feer 1990). Very little is known about its ecology or behaviour, although limited information is available from captive studies (Eisenberg 1989). It is often believed to be limited to coastline and riverbank habitats, but it has also been recorded in non-aquatic habitats at certain times of the year. It is a species rarely seen deep in the rain forest, but it is found in llanos and evergreen forest and in Andean forests. In the zone of geographic overlap with the Northern Raccoon, the latter is found in mangrove swamps while the Crab-eating Raccoon is found along inland rivers (Emmons and Feer 1990).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Generation Length (years):6

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: For information on use and trade, see under Threats.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Threats to this species have included overhunting for pelts, use for target practice, the pet trade, and, in some areas, habitat destruction. Coastal development projects and mangrove destruction contribute regionally to population declines.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No official protection is given to Crab-eating Raccoon throughout most of its range (de la Rosa and Nocke 2000), however, its range does overlap with a number of protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Cherem, J. J., Kammers, M., Ghizoni-Jr, I. R., & Martins, A. 2007. Mamíferos de médio e grande porte atropelados em rodovias do Estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Biotemas 20(3): 81-96.

de la Rosa, C.L. and Nocke, C.C. 2000. A Guide to the Carnivores of Central America: Natural History, Ecology, and Conservation. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.

Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Emmons, L.H. and Feer, F. 1990. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: a Field Guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.

Glatston, A.R. 1994. The Red Panda, Olingos, Coatis, Raccoons, and their Relatives. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Procyonids and Ailurids. IUCN/SSC Mustelid, Viverrid and Procyonid Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

González-Maya, J.F., Cepeda, A.A., Belant, J.L., Zárrate-Charry, D.A., Balaguera-Reina, S.A. and Rodríguez-Bolaños, A. 2011. Research priorities for the small carnivores of Colombia. Small Carnivore Conservation 44: 7-13.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Marín, D., Ramírez-Chaves, H. & Suárez-Castro A. 2012. Revisión cráneo-dentaria de Procyon (Carnivora: Procyonidae) en Colombia y Ecuador, con notas sobre su taxonomía y distribución. Mastozoología Neotropical 19(2): 259-270.

Michalski, F. and Peres, C. A. 2005. Anthropogenic determinants of primate and carnivore local extinctions in a fragmented forest landscape of southern Amazonia. Biological Conservation 124: 383-396.

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.


Citation: Reid, F., Helgen, K. & González-Maya, J.F. 2016. Procyon cancrivorus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41685A45216426. . Downloaded on 24 July 2016.
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