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Taxidea taxus 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Mustelidae

Scientific Name: Taxidea taxus
Species Authority: (Schreber, 1777)
Common Name(s):
English American Badger
Synonym(s):
Ursus taxus Schreber, 1777
Taxonomic Notes: Four subspecies have been recognized based on differences in skull size and pelage colour (Long 1972): Taxidea taxus berlandieri, in the southern United States; T. t. jacksoni, in the north-central United States and southern Ontario in Canada; T. t. taxus, in the Great Plains ecosystem from the United States into the prairie provinces of Canada; and T. t. jeffersonii, in the western United States and southern British Columbia.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-03-01
Assessor(s): Helgen, K. & Reid, F.
Reviewer(s): Duckworth, J.W.
Justification:
This species is listed as Least Concern because it has large range over much of which it is relatively common. Probably it has declined substantially in areas converted from grassland to intensive agriculture and where colonial rodents such as prairie-dogs and ground squirrels have been reduced or eliminated. Also some die by collisions with vehicles and by direct persecution. Overall declines are not at a rate sufficient to qualify for even the Near Threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
  • 2008 – Least Concern (LC)
  • 1996 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is distributed from southern Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and southern Ontario), over most of the northern, western and central United States, and south to Puebla and Baja California, Mexico (Wozencraft 1993, Long 1999).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Canada; Mexico; United States
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):3600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Large range in the western and central U.S.A., southern Canada, and northern and central Mexico; relatively common over much of this range, but probably has declined substantially in areas converted from grassland to intensive agriculture and where colonial rodents such as prairie-dogs Cynomys and ground squirrels Spermophilus are reduced or eliminated. Also potentially threatened by collisions with vehicles and by direct persecution. Badger populations have declined throughout its northern range, through declining habitat suitability (Newhouse and Kinley 2012).

The U.S. population was roughly estimated at several hundred thousand and the Canadian has ane ven lower estimate (Newhouse and Kinley 2012). The Canadian population, according to a 1998 questionnaire, was estimated at 13,700-28,900 in Saskatchewan province and 3,000-5,000 in Manitoba province, providing an estimated Canadian Prairie population of 17,700-43,900 animals (Scobie 2002). There are no estimates for the Mexican population. In areas of abundance, can reach densities of 3-5/km² (Long 1999). In Canada, both T. t. jacksoni in Ontario and T. t. jeffersonii in British Columbia are recognised as endangered, with as few as 200 and 600 animals remaining, respectively (Kyle et al. 2004).

Badgers can occur at densities up to 6 individuals/km² (Messick and Hornocker 1981). Density averages 1 per sq mile in prime open country (Long 1973). In south-eastern Wyoming, density was 0.8-1.1 per km² (Goodrich and Buskirk 1998).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Prefers open areas and may also frequent brushlands with little ground cover. When inactive, occupies underground burrow. Occurs from below sea level to 3,600 m (Kyle et al. 2004), usually in relative dry grasslands and open forests (Rahme et al. 1995). May be active at any hour but is mainly nocturnal.

Most food is obtained by excavating the burrows of fossorial rodents. Ground squirrels are often major item in diet, as are pocket gophers, kangaroo rats, priairie-dogs, and mice; also eats scorpions, insects, snakes, lizards, and birds, especially when ground squirrel population is low (Messick and Hornocker 1981).

Its movements are restricted, especially in winter, and it shows a strong attachment to a home area. Estimated home ranges vary from 2 to 725 ha, changing seasonally (Sargeant and Warner 1972). It is active all year, but it may sleep in its den for several days or weeks during severe winter weather (Nowak 2005).
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: For information on use and trade, see under Threats.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Changing land use, resulting from agriculture, urban development, and forest ingrowth, appears to be a major factor negatively affecting American Badger. Declines may also be related to the persecution of its primary prey, prairie-dogs and ground squirrels (Apps et al. 2002). Finley et al. (1976) speculated that some Colorado populations may have declined because of the elimination of prairie-dogs. Roadkills and habitat loss are the main threats in British Columbia (Newhouse and Kinley 2012). Trapping for pelts has in the past affected populations, mainly in response to high fur prices, but has not had a significant influence on populations in recent years. Badgers are also trapped, shot and poisoned because their diggings are thought to cause broken legs in livestock, lead to water loss from irrigation canals, and cause damage to vehicles encountering their burrows (Scobie 2002).

Although clearing of forests for agricultural land has probably resulted in some range expansion, cultivation of grassland has undoubtedly caused declines (Soper 1964, Stardom 1979, Lindzey 1982, Smith 1992). Likewise, intensification of agriculture is likely to cause declines in the future.

Much mortality is caused by vehicles or deliberate killing by people (Stardom 1979, Messick et al. 1981, Newhouse and Kinley 2012, Apps et al. 2002). Badgers may actually be attracted to roads, both because ground squirrels often burrow alongside them (Ketcheson and Bauer 1995), and because they are good travel routes (Warner and Ver Steeg 1995).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In Canada, American Badger was designated as 'Not At Risk', whilst the two subspecies T. t. jeffersonii (British Columbia) and T. t. jacksoni (Ontario) were designated as 'Endangered' (COSEWIC 2000) with as few as 100 and 200 animals remaining, respectively (Newhouse and Kinley 2012).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Marginal  
3. Shrubland -> 3.3. Shrubland - Boreal
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Apps, C. D., Newhouse, N. J. and Kinley, T. A. 2002. Habitat associations of American badgers in southeastern British Columbia.

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2000. Assessment and update status report on the American badger in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Canada.

Finley Jr., R. B., Wilhelm Jr., D. E. and Caire, W. 1976. Mammals of the Colorado oil shale region. Annual progress report. National Fish and Wildlife Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Goodrich, J. M. and Buskirk, S. W. 1998. Spacing and ecology of North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in a prairie-dog (Cynomys leycurus) complex. Journal of Mammalogy 79: 171-179.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Ketcheson, M. V. and Bauer, P. 1995. West Kootenay badger study, year 2. Unpublished report by the British Columbia Ministry Environment, Lands and Parks, Nelson, British Columbia, Canada.

Kyle, C. J., Strobeck, C., Weir, R. D., Davis, H. and Newhouse, N. J. 2004. Genetic structure of sensitive and endangered northwestern badger populations (Taxidea taxus taxus and T. t. jeffersonii). Journal of Mammalogy 85: 633-639.

Lindzey, F. G. 1982. Badger. In: J. A. Chapman and G. A. Feldhamer (eds), Wild mammals of North America: Biology, management and economics, pp. 653-663. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Long, C.A. 1972. Taxonomic revision of the North American Badger, Taxidea taxus. Journal of Mammalogy 53: 725-759.

Long, C. A. 1973. Taxidea taxus. Mammalian Species 26: 1-4.

Long, C.A. 1999. American badger, Taxidea taxus. In: Wilson, D.E and Ruff, S. (eds), The Smithsonian book of North American mammals, pp. 177-179. Washington DC.

Messick, J. P. 1987. North American badger. In: M. Novak, J. A. Baker, M. E. Obbard and B. Malloch (eds), Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, pp. 586-597. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the Ontario Trappers Association, Ontario, Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Messick, J. P. and Hornocker, M. G. 1981. Ecology of the badger in southwestern Idaho. Wildlife Monographs 76: 1-53.

Newhouse, N. and Kinley, T. 2012. Update COSEWIC status report on American badger (Taxidea taxus). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Canada.

Nowak, R.M. 2005. Walker’s Carnivores of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.

Rahme, A. H., Harestad, A. S. and Bunnell, F. 1995. Status of the badger in British Columbia. Wildlife Working Report WR-72. British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks.

Sargeant, A. B. and Warner, D. W. 1972. Movements and denning habits of a badger. Journal of Mammalogy 53: 207-210.

Scobie, D. 2002. Status of the American Badger (Taxidea taxus) in Alberta. Wildlife Status Report No. 43. Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, and Alberta Conservation Association, Edmonton.

Smith, H. C. 1992. Mammals of the Drumheller area. Natural History Occasional Paper No.17. Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Soper, J. D. 1964. The Mammals of Alberta. Hamly Press Ltd., Edmonton, Canada.

Stardom, R. P. 1979. Status report on the American badger Taxidea taxus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Warner, R. E. and Ver Steeg, B. 1995. Illinois badger studies. Division of Wildlife Resources, Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Springfield, IL, USA.

Wozencraft, W.C. 1993. Order Carnivora. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second Edition, pp. 279-344. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.


Citation: Helgen, K. & Reid, F. 2016. Taxidea taxus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41663A45215410. . Downloaded on 26 July 2016.
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