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Melogale personata

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CARNIVORA MUSTELIDAE

Scientific Name: Melogale personata
Species Authority: I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1831
Common Name(s):
English Large-toothed Ferret Badger, Large-toothed Ferret-badger, Burmese Ferret-badger
Taxonomic Notes: Melogale personata is sometimes considered to include the disjunct populations orientalis of Java and everetti of Borneo, both here considered as separate full species; M. personata does not otherwise occur on these islands. Due to the morphological similarities between all Melogale species and because no thorough taxonomic study has been done on this genus, further research on the systematics of this genus is necessary (Long 1992).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Duckworth, J.W., Timmins, R.J., Long, B., Yonzon, P., Roberton, S. & Tran Quang Phuong
Reviewer(s): Belant, J. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Justification:
This species is listed as Data Deficient in view of the absence of recent information on its current geographical distribution, status, ecological requirements, and response to the habitat conversion and non-specific hunting almost ubiquitous across its range. Although it was clearly formerly common in much or all of its range, as shown by the number of verifiable specimens, these habitat and hunting factors mean that it is plausible that it could be threatened. The lack of information available stems partly from the confusion over the identification between this species and Melogale moschata in the field within the wide geographical area where these species certainly or potentially overlap. It also comes partly from a general paucity of recent records of ferret badgers (even those identified only to genus) across most of southeast Asia. The locations and habitat of a fair number of such records suggest that at least one of M. personata and M. moschata is not threatened in the region, and that typical survey methods are not very good at detecting the genus.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in northeast India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, and southern Yunnan (China) (Lekagul and McNeely 1977). There is an old record from western Guangdong (China). In India it is found from 30 to 1,950 m (Choudhury pers. comm.) and Datta (1999) confirmed current occurence at about 27°N in India. Records from Nepal are historic and may differ from what is today recognized as "Nepal" (Hodgson 1836- holotype for subspecies) - and there have been no subsequent records since (Pralad Yonzon, verbally; see also Hinton and Fry 1923). Records from northern Viet Nam need to be checked in Museums and further investigated (Roberton pers. comm.), although there is a record confirmed from Yanbai (Thomas 1922); other records may not have ruled out M. moschata from the identification. Distributions of species in Cambodia and Lao PDR are highly speculative and based on few verifiable specimens (Duckworth et al. 1999 pers. comm.): A skull of this species was found Khammouan Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation Area in early 1998 (Robinson and Webber 1998a), and "the species was previously common on the Bolaven Plateau (Osgood 1932, Delacour 1940)." [from Duckworth et al. 1999]. The distribution in Myanamar north to 22˚N is well supported by validated individuals, but there seem to be no post-1950 records identified to species (Pocock 1941, Than Zaw et al. in press). This is the only species of the genus confirmed to occur in Thailand, and hence records of the genus are routinely assumed to relate to this species. In fact, M. moschata might also occur too (and was even mapped, apparently predictively, by Storz and Wozencraft 1999). Melogale moschata and M. personata are very similar in external morphology, and field records, including skin specimens lacking an associated skull, need to be considered as identifiable only as Melogale sp. throughout the parts its range where M. moschata is known to occur or might plausibly do so (effectively, this is all the known range). Only reference to skull characteristics should be used for species-level identification. Thus, in Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Cambodia and India there is continued difficulty of identifying recent records of ferret badgers to species, most of which lack skulls or did not have the skull characters checked and were not preserved. Hence it is impossible to say anything about this species’s current distribution, status or ecology in these regions.
Countries:
Native:
China; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species seems to be patchy in occurrence and generally uncommon but in some localised parts of South-east Asia, ferret badgers (species not known) seem to be more common. The genus is uncommon in Thailand (Kanchanasaka pers. comm.). The species was previously common on the Bolaven Plateau (Osgood 1932, Delacour 1940), however, there are very few recent records from Lao PDR – it is unknown if this is due to elusiveness or rarity (W. Duckworth in litt. 2006).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is nocturnal and feeds primarily on small animals such as insects, earthworms, snails, frogs, and sometimes carcasses of small birds and mammals, eggs, and fruit (Chian and Sheng, 1976; Long and Killingley, 1983; Ewer, 1985; Neal, 1986; Chuang, 1994). This species sleeps during the day in its burrow, and comes out at night to feed on cockroaches, grasshoppers, and earthworms (Lekagul and McNeely 1977). It is found in forest, grassland, and even rice fields (Lekagul and McNeely 1977), but it is unclear in which habitats populations can persist; records from other habitats may involve sink populations or dispersing individuals. Not much is known about the breeding of this species, though it does have an average litter size of about three (Lekagul and McNeely 1977). This species is fossorial and lives in preexisting holes, rather than digging new ones (Taylor, 1989).In Lao PDR, little is known about the habitat use of this species (Duckworth et al. 1999). In Thailand, records were found in hill evergreen forests, pine forests and grasslands (Kanchanasaka pers. comm.).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In Laos, parts of all badgers are used in traditional medicine (Baird 1995b), however, there is no evidence that there is a big enough demand to cause declines of ferret badgers (W. Duckworth in litt. 2006). There are few records recently from Laos of Ferret Badgers, but this may well simply be due to inadequate search effort. In northeastern India the genus is hunted for food (Choudhury pers. comm.). Because this species does not prey on poultry or livestock, nor cause to damage to property or farm facilities, it is not threatened by humans, despite its close proximity to them (Wang and Fuller 2003). In addition, the value of an individual pelt is not high, and the meat is eaten in some areas (Wang and Fuller 2003).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Lao PDR, parts of all badgers are used in traditional medicine (Baird 1995b), however, there is no evidence that there is a big enough demand to cause declines of ferret badgers (W. Duckworth in litt. 2006). There are few records recently from Lao PDR of ferret badgrets, but this may well simply be due to inadequate search effort. In northeastern India the genus is hunted for food (A. Choudhury pers. comm.). Because this genus does not prey on poultry or livestock, nor cause to damage to property or farm facilities, it is not threatened by humans, despite its close proximity to them (Wang and Fuller, 2003). In addition, the value of an individual pelt is not high, and the meat is eaten in some areas (Wang and Fuller, 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: A skull of this species was found Khammouan Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation Area in early 1998 (Robinson and Webber 1998a). This species may be found to occur in many protected areas across its range (W. Duckworth in litt. 2006); until there are surveys known to be using appropriate methodology, it is difficult to speculate on current presence in protected areas. In India, it is protected in Schuedule 2, Part 1. In Thailand it (the Genus) was found in Doi Chieng Doi Wildlife Sanctuary and Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary (Kanchanasaka pers. comm.). It has also been recorded from Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary (PKWS) in Thailand (L. Grassman pers. comm.).

Bibliography [top]

Datta, A. 1999. Small carnivores in two protected areas of Arunachal Pradesh. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 96: 399-404.

Delacour, J. 1940. Liste provisoire des mammifères de l'Indochine française. Mammalia 4: 20-29, 46-58.

Duckworth, J.W., Salter, R.E. and Khounbline, K. 1999. Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. IUCN, Vientiane, Laos.

Hinton, M. A. C. and Fry, T. B. 1923. Bombay Natural History Society’s mammal survey of India, Burma and Ceylon. Report no. 37: Nepal. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 29: 299-428.

Lekagul, B. and Mcneely, J. A. 1988. Mammals of Thailand. White Lotus Press, Bangkok, Thailand.

Osgood, W. H. 1932. Mammals of the Kelley-Roosevelts and Delacour Asiatic expeditions. Field Museum of Natural History, Zoology Series 18(10): 193-339.

Pocock, R. I. 1941. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Taylor & Francis, Ltd., London, UK.

Storz, J. F. and Wozencraft, W. C. 1999. Melogale moschata. Mammalian Species 631: 1-4.

Than Zaw, Saw Htun, Saw Htoo Tha Po, Myint Maung, Lynam, A. J., Kyaw Thinn Latt & Duckworth, J. W. 2008. Status and distribution of small carnivores in Myanmar. Small Carnivore Conservation 38: 2–28.


Citation: Duckworth, J.W., Timmins, R.J., Long, B., Yonzon, P., Roberton, S. & Tran Quang Phuong 2008. Melogale personata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 November 2014.
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