|Scientific Name:||Nandinia binotata|
|Species Authority:||(Gray, 1830)|
Viverra binotata Gray, 1830
|Taxonomic Notes:||Treated here as the only member of the family Nandiniidae, following Pocock (1929), Wozencraft (2005) and Gaubert et al. (2005). For further discussion see Gaubert (2013).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Gaubert, P., Bahaa-el-din, L., Ray, J. & Do Linh San, E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Duckworth, J.W. & Hoffmann, M.|
It is listed as Least Concern because this species has a wide distribution range, is present in a variety of habitats, is common across its range, and is present in numerous protected areas. However, it is probably undergoing some localised declines because of habitat loss, hunting and pest control.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is widely distributed from Gambia to southwest South Sudan, southern Uganda and western Kenya, and from northern Angola, and northwestern Zambia to DR Congo and western Tanzania. It is then discontinuously distributed in eastern and southern Africa in montane and lowland forests of Tanzania, Malawi, parts of Zimbabwe, and Mozambique, south to about 20°5’S (Van Rompaey and Ray 2013). It is also present on Bioko Island (Eisentraut 1973), although historically rare (Harrington et al. 2002) and Zanzibar (Perkin 2004, 2005). It occurs from sea level up to 2,500 m asl on the Mbeya range in Tanzania (D. De Luca in Van Rompaey and Ray 2013).|
Native:Angola (Angola); Benin; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea (Bioko - Possibly Extinct, Equatorial Guinea (mainland)); Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mozambique; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||2500|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is widespread and locally abundant, and probably the most common African forest small carnivoran (Van Rompaey and Ray 2013). This might be related to its frugivorous habits, thus reducing dietary interspecific competition with other sympatric small carnivores and allowing for high densities. In Gabon minimum average density was estimated at ca 5 individuals/km2 (Charles-Dominique 1978).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in deciduous forests, lowland rainforests and mountain, gallery and riverine forests, savanna woodlands, and logged and second-growth forests. In a set of recent surveys carried out in Gabon, this species was found country-wide in rainforest, forest–savanna mosaics and dense woodland (Bahaa-el-din et al. 2013). It is known to visit cultivated fields bordering forest edge (Van Rompaey and Ray 2013). It is predominantly frugivorous, although it forages opportunistically for vertebrates and insects (Van Rompaey and Ray 2013).|
|Generation Length (years):||4|
|Use and Trade:||It is commonly used as bushmeat and for traditional medicine. In Gabon, African Palm Civets' skin is specifically used to remove curses (L. Bahaa-el-din pers. obs. 2013). In some regions, the fur is sought after to make ceremonial dresses (Malbrant and Maclatchy 1949) and to make wrist-bracelets, hats, and to cover the bow (Carpaneto and Germi 1989).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats, although it may be undergoing some localised declines because of habitat loss. It is also commonly trapped or hunted for bushmeat and for traditional medicine. African Palm Civets were the most common carnivore recorded in two markets in Equatorial Guinea (Juste et al. 1995) as well as in Guinea (Colyn et al. 2004). In Gabon, it was the second most numerous species in village offtakes and the most numerous species in bushmeat markets, where it was three times more common than any other carnivore species (Bahaa-el-din et al. 2013). There, African Palm Civets are killed in retaliation for poultry depredation near villages and for traditional medicine (L. Bahaa-el-din pers. obs.). None of this offtake is believed to be threatening at the population level.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is present in many protected areas across the range.|
Bahaa-el-din, L., Henschel, P., Aba’a, R., Abernethy, K., Bohm, T., Bout, N., Coad, L., Head, J., Inoue, E., Lahm, S., Lee, M. E., Maisels, F., Rabanal, L., Starkey, M., Taylor, G., Vanthomme, A., Nakashima, Y. and Hunter, L. 2013. Notes on the distribution and status of small carnivores in Gabon. Small Carnivore Conservation 48: 19-29.
Carpaneto, G.M. and Germi, F.P. 1989. The mammals in the zoological culture of the Mbuti pygmies in north-eastern Zaire. Hystrix – Italian Journal of Mammalogy 1: 1-83.
Charles-Dominique, P. 1978. Ecologie et vie sociale de Nandinia binotata (carnivores, viverridés): Comparaison avec les prosimiens sympatriques du Gabon. La Terre et la Vie 32: 477-528.
Colyn, M., Dufour, S., Condé, P.C. and Van Rompaey, H. 2004. The importance of small carnivores in forest bushmeat hunting in the Classified Forest of Diecké, Guinea. Small Carnivore Conservation 31: 15-18.
Eisentraut, M. 1973. Die Wirbeltierfauna von Fernando Po und Westkamerun. Bonner Zoologische Monographien 3: 1-428.
Gaubert, P. 2013. Family Nandiniidae Two-spotted Palm Civet. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. V. Carnivores, Pangolins, Equids and Rhinoceroses, pp. 138-139. Bloomsbury, London, UK.
Gaubert, P., Wozencraft, W. C., Cordeiro-Estrela, P. and Veron, G. 2005. Mosaics of convergences and noise in morphological phylogenies: what's in a viverrid-like carnivoran? Systematic Biology 54: 865-894.
Gaubert, P., Wozencraft, W.C., Corderi-Estrela, P. and Veron, G. 2005. Mosaics of convergences and noise in morphological phylogenies: what's in a viverrid-like carnivoran? Systematic Biology 54(6): 865-894.
Harrington, R., Berghaier, R.W. and Hearn, G.W. 2002. The status of carnivores on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Small Carnivore Conservation 27: 19-22.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Juste, J., Fa, J.E., Perez del Val, J. and Castroviejo, J. 1995. Market dynamics of bushmeat species in Equatorial Guinea. Journal of Applied Ecology 32: 454-467.
Malbrant, R. and Maclatchy, A. 1949. Faune de l’Equateur Africain Français. Tome II. Mammifères. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
Perkin, A. 2004. A new range record for the African Palm Civet Nandinia binotata (Carnivora, Viverridae) from Unguja Island, Zanzibar. African Journal of Ecology 42: 232-234.
Perkin, A. 2005. Distributional notes on the African Palm Civet Nandinia binotata in Tanzania. Small Carnivore Conservation 32: 17-20.
Pocock, R.I. 1929. Carnivora. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Volume 4, pp. 896-900.
Van Rompaey, H. and Ray, J.C. 2013. Nandinia binotata Two-spotted Palm Civet (African Palm Civet, Tree Civet)). In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. V. Carnivores, Pangolins, Equids and Rhinoceroses, pp. 140-144. Bloomsbury, London, UK.
Wozencraft, W.C. 2005. Order Carnivora. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third Edition, pp. 532-628. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Gaubert, P., Bahaa-el-din, L., Ray, J. & Do Linh San, E. 2015. Nandinia binotata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T41589A45204645. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.|
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