|Scientific Name:||Mico humilis|
|Species Authority:||(M. van Roosmalen, T. van Roosmalen, R.A. Mittermeier & de Fonseca, 1998)|
Callibella humilis (M. van Roosmalen, T. van Roosmalen, R.A. Mittermeier & de Fonseca, 1998)
Callithrix humilis M. van Roosmalen, T. van Roosmalen, R.A. Mittermeier and de Fonseca, 1998
|Taxonomic Notes:||Previously included in the genus Callithrix (see Rylands et al. 2000, 2008). Groves (2001, 2005) lists this species as Callithrix (Callibella) humilis. This marmoset is very distinct, intermediate in size between the Pygmy Marmoset and other Amazonian marmosets. Morphological and genetic studies argued for its placement in a separate genus (Aguiar and Lacher Jr. 2003, van Roosmalen and van Roosmalen 2003). Schneider et al. (2012) transferred it to the genus Mico.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Hoffmann, M.|
Listed as Vulnerable as the species is confined to a very small unprotected range where they may be susceptible to potential future habitat loss from agricultural expansion.
|Range Description:||According to Van Roosmalen et al. (1998) and Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen (2003), the Black-crowned Dwarf Marmoset has a very restricted range along the west bank of the Rio Aripuanã, from its mouth, just south-west of the town of Novo Aripuanã, south at least to the village of Tucunaré, and west, along the right bank of the Rio Madeira to the mouth of the Rio Mataurá, and the right bank of the Rio Uruá. They speculated that the southern limit is probably marked by the headwaters of the Rios Mariepauá and Arauá. An isolated population was also found along the middle Rio Atininga, about 50 km south-west of the presumed southern limit of the main population, about 10 km east of the Rio Manicoré. The range of Mico humilis is entirely within that hypothesized for Mico manicorensis.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen (2003) estimated a total population of about 10,000 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species occurs in terra firma rainforest in the central Amazon. It is an adaptable species, found in edge habitats near villages. Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen (2003) indicated that the species shows an extreme commensalism with humans and is "almost totally dependent for survival on multi-species managed forests, fruit orchards and gardens growing on so-called terras pretas (anthropogenic soils, or 'black earth'). Sympatric with Mico manicorensis.
Its diet includes insects, fruits and gums. Tree-gouging and gum-feeding is as important in this species as it is in the smaller, allopatric Cebuella, and especially important in the dry season when fruits are scarce (Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen 2003).
Average groups are made up of 6-8 individuals, but group aggregations have been observed with over 30 individuals (Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen 2003). Unlike the norm for callitrichids, observations in the wild indicate that more than one female is reproductively active in each group. Only one offspring has been seen in any one group in the wild, indicating that singleton births, not twins are the norm. Only the mother it seems carries the young (cooperative breeding not observed).
Body weight 150 g.
Size: Female H&B 16.7 cm, TL 22.0 cm.
Size: Male H&B 16.1 cm, TL 20.9 cm.
|Major Threat(s):||There is no evidence of any major threats at present. However, its habitat is potentially vulnerable to destruction for agriculture. They are probably not hunted, though there may be some use as pets.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no protected areas within the range of this species. It is listed on Appendix II of CITES (as Callithrix humilis).|
Aguiar, J. M. and Lacher Jr., T. E. 2003. On the morphological distinctiveness of Callithrix humilis Van Roosmalen et al., 1998. Neotropical Primates 11(1): 11-18.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 28 May 2015).
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 2008. The systematics and distributions of the marmosets (Callithrix, Callibella, Cebuella, and Mico) and callimico (Callimico) (Callitrichidae, Primates). In: S. M. Ford, L. C. Davis and L. Porter (eds), The Smallest Anthropoids: The Marmoset/Callimico Radiation, Springer, New York, USA.
Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier, R. A., Groves, C. P. and Rodríguez-Luna, E. 2000. An assessment of the diversity of New World primates. Neotropical Primates 8(2): 61-93.
Schneider, H., Bernardi, J.A.R., da Cunha, D.B., Tagliaro, C.H., Vallinoto, M., Ferrari, S.F. and Sampaio, I. 2012. A molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationships in the Callitrichinae, with emphasis on the position of the dwarf marmoset. Zoologica Scripta 41: 1-10.
Van Roosmalen, M G. M. and Van Roosmalen, T. 2003. The description of a new marmoset genus, Callibella (Callitrichinae, Primates), including its molecular phylogenetic status. Neotropical Primates 11(1): 1–10.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier, R. A. and da Fonseca, G. A. B. 1998. A new and distinctive species of marmoset (Callitrichidae, Primates) from the Lower Rio Aripuana, state of Amazonas, central Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia 22: 1-27.
|Citation:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. 2015. Mico humilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 June 2015.|
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