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Microcebus berthae 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cheirogaleidae

Scientific Name: Microcebus berthae
Species Authority: Rasoloarison, Goodman & Ganzhorn, 2000
Common Name(s):
English Madame Berthe's Mouse Lemur, Berthe’s Mouse Lemur, Berthe's Mouse Lemur
Taxonomic Notes: Microcebus berthae is the name given to the diminutive Rufous-colored Mouse Lemur from Kirindy/CFPF, originally called M. myoxinus by Schmid and Kappeler (1994).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F.
Justification:
The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species covers less than 810 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence, and in quality of habitat, caused by illegal logging and slash-and-burn agriculture. The species is also susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Endangered (EN)
2003 Not Evaluated (NE)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is restricted to the Menabe region in the southwest, south of the Tsiribihina River (Schmid and Kappeler 1994, Schwab and Ganzhorn 2004). It is best known from the Kirindy/CFPF forests and Ambadira, but is believed to occur in the forests of Analabe just a few km to the northwest. The EOO is estimated to be less than 810 km2.


Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 546-809
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Upper elevation limit (metres): 150
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

Although adaptable and abundant where it occurs, in 2005 the total population of this species was estimated at no more than 8,000 adult individuals living in a handful of forests, most of which are still at risk of destruction and fragmentation (Schwab and Ganzhorn 2004). Densities of 30-100 individuals/km² have been recorded in patches where it occurs (suggesting high localized densities), but the overall generalized density is about one-third - probably in the order of 30/km². Population densities tend to be higher in Ambadira than in Kirindry (Schäffler 2011, Schäffler and Kappeler in press).

Pressure on the forests of the central Menabe is strong and deforestation continues on a large scale. To quantify recent forest loss, Zinner et al. (2010) used a series of satellite images (1973–2010) for estimating annual deforestation rates. The overall rate was 0.67 %, but it accelerated during certain periods to over 1.5 % with a maximum of 2.55 % per year between 2008 and 2010. Not all areas within the forest block of the central Menabe are affected similarly. Areas surrounding existing clearings show the highest losses of largely undisturbed forest. If deforestation continues at the same rate as during the last years, 50% of the 1973 forest cover will be gone within the next 11–37 years.

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 8000
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits an area of dry deciduous forest; perhaps occasionally in secondary forest (from sea level to 150 m). This species feeds on fruits and gums, and relies heavily on sugary insect excretions and animal matter during the harsh dry season. A solitary forager characterized by extensively overlapping home ranges, the ranges of males (4.9 ha) being substantially larger than those of females (2.5 ha) and more prone to seasonal fluctuation (Schwab and Ganzhorn 2004). Microcebus berthae is the world's smallest primate.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species is habitat loss due to illegal logging and slash-and-burn agriculture. This species in particularly sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. As the smallest primate in the world, M. berthae is also very vulnerable to predators.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. The recently established 125,000-ha Menabe-Antimena Protected Area encompasses the 30,000-ha strict conservation zone that includes the Kirindy Forest, and the currently unprotected Ambadira forests, all of which provide protection for this species. It probably still occurs in the Andranomena Special Reserve as well, an old reserve immediately adjacent to the new protected area. It was formerly found in the Analabe Private Reserve as well, but has likely been extirpated from there. The distribution range is less than 5000 km2. As of 2009, this species was not being kept in captivity (ISIS 2009).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

ISIS. 2009. International Species Information System. Apple Valley, MN Available at: www.isis.org. (Accessed: 01.01.2009).

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Schäffler, L. 2011. Determinants of population structure in the world's smallest primate, Microcebus berthae, across its global range in Menabe Central, Western Madagascar. Universität Göttingen.

Schäffler, L., Kappeler, P.M. in press. Distribution and abundance of the world's smallest primate, Microcebus berthae, in Central Western Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology 35.

Schmid, J. and Kappeler, P. M. 1994. Sympatric mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) in western Madagascar. Folia Primatologica 63: 162–170.

Schwab, D. and Ganzhorn, J. U. 2004. Distribution, population structure and habitat use of Microcebus berthae compared to those of other sympatric cheirogaleids. International Journal ofPrimatology 25(2): 307 – 330.

Zinner, D., Wygoda, C., Razafimanantsoa, L., Rasoloarison, R., Andrianandrasana, H., Ganzhorn, J., Torkler, F. 2010. Analysis of deforestation patterns in the central Menabe, Madagascar, between 1973 and 2010. Regional Environmental Change May 2013.


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Microcebus berthae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T41573A16112746. . Downloaded on 12 February 2016.
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