Callicebus moloch


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Callicebus moloch
Species Authority: (Hoffmannsegg, 1807)
Common Name(s):
English Red-bellied Titi Monkey, Dusky Titi, Red-bellied Titi, Titi Monkey
Taxonomic Notes: Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) and van Roosmalen et al. (2002) recognize five species groups – cupreus, donacophilus, moloch, personatus and torquatus. The moloch group consists of Callicebus baptista, Callicebus bernhardi, Callicebus brunneus, Callicebus cinerascens, Callicebus hoffmannsi and Callicebus moloch.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Veiga, L.M. & Ferrari, S.F.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is listed as Least Concern due to its large range (largest of the southern Amazonian titis), and because there is currently no evidence of a decline sufficient to qualify it for listing in a threatened category.
2003 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Callicebus moloch occurs in Brazilian Amazonia south of the Rio Amazonas in the States of Pará and Mato Grosso. In Pará, it occurs from the west bank of Rio Tocantins/Araguaia west as far as the east bank of Rio Tapajós, south as far as Ilha do Bananal, north of the confluence of Rio das Mortes with the Rio Araguaia; in Mato Grosso, it ranges as far west as Rio Juruena, including the headwaters of the Rio Xingú (M. G. M. van Roosmalen collected a specimen shot by a Waurá Indian hunter along Rio Von den Steinen). In the north-western part of its range, the species is parapatric with C. hoffmannsi along the lower Rio Tapajós, and in the south-western corner of its range it is parapatric with C. cinerascens along the upper Rio Juruena. May have a patchy distribution within its range (Ferrari et al. 2007).
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no information on the population status of this species.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: No data on the ecology of this species are available. Titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.) are known to occur in a wide range of habitats, although some species exhibit habitat preferences, for example C. lucifer is reported to prefer white-sand forests (E. Heymann pers. comm. 2008), and C. donacophilus drier forests (Ferrari et al. 2000; R. Wallace pers. comm.). Members of the C. moloch and C. cupreus groups are considered tolerant of habitat disturbance caused by human activity or seasonal flooding (van Roosmalen et al. 2002). Indeed, Ferrari et al. (2003) recorded C. moloch in fragmented forests.

The diet of titis comprises mainly fruit pulp, leaves, insects and seeds. They form small, pair-bonded, territorial groups and are considered monogamous. They have small home (1.5-30 km) and day ranges (0.5-1.5 km).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Locally, this species is at risk from habitat loss and degradation. Some parts of the interfluvium suffer from deforestation, the establishment of dams (Tucuruí, and proposed Belo Monte) and mining. The Trans-Amazon Highway (BR-320) bisects part of its range from east to west, and the Santarém-Cuiabá highway (BR-163) means a large part of the Xingu-Tapajós interfluvium is accessible from the south. In recent years, this highway has become the main channel of colonization for soybean farmers migrating northwards from the state of Mato Grosso, although for the time being, this threat is limited to a relatively small proportion of the species’ range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Occurs in several protected areas, including the Tapirapé Biological Reserve (103,000 ha). However, a significant lacunae in the occurrence of Callicebus moloch in the Xingu-Tocantins interfluvium has been documented, including its absence from the Caxiuanã National Forest (Ferrari et al. 2007).
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Bibliography [top]

Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes, M. A. 1996. Primate populations in eastern Amazonia. Plenum Press, New York, USA.

Ferrari, S. F., Bobadilla, U. L. and Emidio-Silva, C. 2007. Where have all the titis gone? The heterogeneous distribution of Callicebus moloch in eastern Amazonia, and its implications for the conservation of Amazonian primates. Primate Conservation 22.

Ferrari S. F., Iwanaga S, Messias, M. R., Ramos E. M., Ramos, P. C. S., da Cruz Neto, E. H. and Coutinho, P. E. G. 2000. Titi monkeys (Callicebus spp., Atelidae: Platyrrhini) in Brazilian state of Rondonia.

Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Ravetta, A. L., Freitas, F. C., Souza, B. A. R., Souza, L. L., Costa, C. G. and Coutinho, P. E. G. 2003. Dynamics of primate communities along the Santarém-Cuiabá Highway in south-Central Brazilian Amazonia. In: L. Marsh (ed.), Primates in Fragments: Ecology and Conservation, pp. 123-144. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Hershkovitz, P. 1988. Origin, speciation, and distribution of South American titi monkeys, genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140(1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana: Zoology 55: 1-109.

Kobayashi, S. 1995. A phylogenetic study of titi monkeys, genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: I. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Norconk, M. A. 2007. Saki, uakaris, and titi monkeys: behavioral diversity in a radiation of primate seed predators. In: C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C.MacKinnon, M. Panger and S. K. Bearder (eds), Primates in Perspectives, pp. 123-138. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R.A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10: 1-52.

Citation: Veiga, L.M. & Ferrari, S.F. 2008. Callicebus moloch. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 29 August 2015.
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