|Scientific Name:||Alouatta sara|
|Species Authority:||Elliot, 1910|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hill (1962) and Stanyon et al. (1995) listed nine subspecies of the Red Howler Monkey, Alouatta seniculus: A. s. seniculus, A. s. arctoidea, A. s. stramineus, A. s. macconnelli, A. s. insulanus, A. s. amazonica, A. s. juara, A. s. puruensis, and A. s. sara.
Alouatta seniculus sara is recognized as a full species following Minezawa et al. (1985; see also Stanyon et al. 1995; Groves 2001, 2005).
Alouatta seniculus sara
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Boubli, J.-P., Di Fiore, A., Rylands, A.B., Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Least Concern given its relatively large range in Bolivia, and because hunting pressure on this species is not thought to have resulted in a decline that would warrant listing the species in a threatened category.
|Range Description:||Alouatta sara is believed to occur only in Bolivia. Anderson (1997) gives a range extending from the Department of Pando south along the Andean Cordillera and east into central Bolivia including the entire basin of the Río Beni and east as far the Mamoré-Guapore. Its sympatry with Alouatta caraya over a large part of its range east of the Río Beni is poorly understood, but the indications are that there may be some subtle, but distinct difference in habitat preferences, with A. sara prevailing in humid forest areas and seasonally flooded forest along major rivers (for example, igapó along the Río Iteñez) and A. caraya being found in drier, semdeciduous forest and gallery forest in areas of savanna and chaco (see for example, Wallace et al. 1998)|
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is patchily distributed in terra firme forest, but is most common in seasonally flooded forest and riverine forest.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is found up to 1,000 m in tropical forest including riverine forest and seasonally flooded forests. During their primate surveys in the Noel Kempf Mercado National Park, Bolivia, Wallace et al. (1998) found Alouatta sara only (n=20) in igapó forest (seasonally inundated forest) along the Río Iteñez.
The howler monkeys are the large leaf-eaters of the South American primate communities. The molar teeth are particularly adapted for their chewing leaves through shearing. They spend up to 70% of their day lying and sitting about quietly among the branches, fermenting leaves in their enlarged caecums. Like the spider monkeys, they are prehensile-tailed, with a naked patch of skin on the under surface at the tip. Their most characteristic feature is the deep jaws which surround the enlarged larynx and hyoid apparatus, a resonating chamber. It is with this enlarged and highly specialized voice box that they produce their howls (grunts, roars and barks). Howling sessions, usually involving the entire group, can be heard particularly in the early morning and are audible at distances of 1-2 kms (Drubbel and Gautier 1993). The red howlers (A. seniculus, A. macconnelli, A. juara, A. puruensis, and A. sara) have the largest voice boxes and the deepest roars, while the Mexican, Central American and northern Colombian mantled howlers, A. palliata and A. pigra, have the smallest, and their howls are more high pitched as a result.
Red howler groups are usually small, ranging in size from 2-16 animals and averaging 4-10 (Neville et al. 1988). Wallace et al. (1998) recorded an average group size of 3.3±2.0 individuals (range 1-7, n=18) in the Noel Kempff Mercado Nation Park in eastern central Bolivia. In the red howlers, there is usually only one dominant male in the group (occasionally two), others being sub-adults, or juveniles, along with a harem of two to five females. Unlike the spider monkeys, and related to the large proportion of leaves in the diet (up to 50% of the annual diet), the howler monkeys generally have quite small and broadly overlapping home ranges, of 5 ha up to 45 ha, depending on the type of habitat (Neville et al. 1988).
Howlers are the only New World primates which regularly include mature leaves in their diet, although softer, less fibrous, young leaves are preferred when they are available. Their folivory and ability to eat mature leaves is undoubtedly one of the keys to their wide distribution and the wide variety of vegetation types they inhabit. Mature fruit is the other important food item, especially wild figs (Ficus) in many regions, but they also eat leaf petioles, buds, flowers (sometimes seasonally very important), seeds, moss, stems and twigs, and termitaria.
Oestrus lasts 2-4 days, with intervals between oestrous periods of about 17 days. Interbirth intervals are generally about 16.6 months, although they may be shortened by the death of an infant to about 10.5 months (Crockett and Sekulic 1984). Mean gestation length is 191 days (range 186-194, n=6) (as for A. seniculus seniculus in Crockett and Sekulic 1982).
|Major Threat(s):||The main threat to this species is hunting (mainly for subsistence use), which has led to local extirpations in some areas.|
There are a number of protected areas within this species range:
Isiboro Sécure National Park (1,200,000 ha) (Brown and Rumiz 1986)
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (1,500,000 ha) (Wallace et al. 1998)
Manuripi Heath National Reserve (1,884,000 ha) (Brown and Rumiz 1986)
Ríos Blanco y Negro National Reserve (1,423,900 ha) (Wallace et al. 2000)
Amboró National Park (180,000 ha) (Brown and Rumiz 1986)
Pilon Lajas National Park (400,000 ha) (Brown and Rumiz 1986)
Carrasco National Park (622,600 ha)
Madidi National Park (1,571,500 ha).
It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
Anderson, S. 1997. Mammals of Bolivia: Taxonomy and distribution. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 231: 1–652.
Anderson, S., Riddle, B. R., Yates, T. L. and Cook, J. A. 1993. Los mamíferos del Parque Nacional Amboró y la region de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia Cruz. Special Publication of the Museum of Southwestern Biology 2: 1-58.
Brown, A. D. and Rumiz, D. I. 1986. Distribucion de los primates en Bolivia. In: M. T. de Mello (ed.), A Primatologia no Brasil, pp. 335-363. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasília, Brazil.
Crockett, C. M. and Sekulic, R. 1982. Gestation length in red howler monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 3: 291–294.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hill, W. C. O. 1962. Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy V. Cebidae Part B. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Minezawa. M., Harada, M., Jordan, O. C. and Valdivia Borda, C. J. 1986. Cytogenetics of the Bolivian endemic red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus sara): accessory chromosomes and Y-autosome translocation related numerical variations. Kyoto University Overseas Research Reports of New World Monkeys 5: 7-16.
Painter, R. L. E., Wallace, R. B. and Pickford, D. 1995. Relative abundances of peccaries in areas of different human pressures within the Beni Biospere Reserve, Bolivia. Ibex, Journal of Mountain Ecology 3: 49–52.
Stanyon, R., Tofanelli, S., Morescalchi, M. A., Agoramoorthy, G., Ryder, O. A. and Wienberg, J. 1995. Cytogenetic analysis shows extensive genomic rearrangements between red howler (Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus) subspecies. American Journal of Primatology 35: 171-183.
Wallace, R. B., Painter, R. L. E. and Taber, A. B. 1998. Primate diversity, habitat preferences and population density estimates in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. American Journal of Primatology 46: 197–211.
Wallace, R. B., Painter, R. L. E., Rumiz, D. I. and Taber, A. B. 2000. Primate diversity, distribution and relative abundances in the Rios Blanco y Negro Wildlife Reserve, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Neotropical Primates 8(1): 24–28.
|Citation:||Boubli, J.-P., Di Fiore, A., Rylands, A.B., Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B. 2008. Alouatta sara. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 October 2014.|