|Scientific Name:||Aotus nancymaae|
|Species Authority:||Hershkovitz, 1983|
|Taxonomic Notes:||It is doubtful that the current taxonomy provides a true picture of the diversity of the genus Aotus. Ruiz-Herrera et al. (2005) reported that cytogenetic studies have characterized 18 different karyotypes with diploid numbers ranging from 46 to 58 chromosomes. The taxonomy of the night monkeys essentially follows the revision by Hershkovitz (1983), with some modifications for the Colombian and Central American forms.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Cornejo, F. & Palacios, E.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Least Concern due to its wide range, suspected large populations, and because there are no major threats believed to be resulting in a significant population decline at present.
|Range Description:||Aotus nancymaae occurs south of the Rio Amazonas, west from the Rio Jutaí. Its southern limit is in the headwaters of the Rio Jutai, stretching west in a line to cross the Río Javari at the level of the headwaters of the Río Tapiche, across the Ucayali basin to the upper Río Marañón (Hershkovitz 1983; Aquino and Encarnación 1994a, 1988). The northern boundary in Peru is the right bank of the Amazonas to the Río Marañón, occurring to the north of the Marañón between the ríos Tigre and Pastaza (Aquino and Encarnación 1994a), invading the distribution of A. vociferans north of the Amazonas and Marañón.|
Native:Brazil (Amazonas); Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Aquino and Encarnación (1986a, 1988) have estimated densities of 24.2 to 46.3 individuals/km² in north-eastern Peru. Aquino and Encarnación (1994b) reviewed population structure and densities for the genus.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Night monkeys typically occur in primary and secondary forest (including disturbed forest and selectively logged forest), seasonally flooded and terra firma, lowland forest (Aquino and Encarnación 1986a,b, 1988, 1994a,b; Defler 2004). Aquino and Encarnación (1994b) reviewed the habitat and forest preferences of the genus.
Night monkeys are nocturnal: they are most active at dawn and dusk. The only exception is Aotus azarae azarae of the Chaco of southern Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina, which is cathemeral (active during night and day). They are frugivorous; their diet includes fruit, nectar and flower (seasonally important for the A. a. azarae in the Chaco), leaves, and small animals prey such as insects (Wright 1989; Fernandez-Duque 2007).
They are socially monogamous, living in small groups of an adult pair and offspring of different ages (infant, one or two juveniles and sometimes a subadult. In A. a. azarae, a significant number of adults range alone. They may be subadults that have left their natal groups or older adults which have been evicted from their groups by competitors (Fernandez-Duque and Huntington 2002; Fernandez-Duque 2004). Both sexes disperse. Males care for the infants (carry them) (Rotundo et al. 2002, 2005). Lone adults were observed by Villavicencio Galindo (2003) in northern Colombia. Night monkeys are territorial—groups occupy overlapping territories of 5-18 ha (depending on the species and location) (Wright 1978; Fernandez-Duque 2007). Wright (1994) and Fernandez-Duque (2007) review the behaviour and ecology of the genus.
Captive male A. lemurinus reach sexual maturity when 2 years old, and captive female A. vociferans and A. nancymaae first breed when 3-4 years old (Dixson 1983; Fernandez-Duque 2007). In the wild, male A. azarae reach adult weight only when about 4 years old, and age at first reproduction is about 5 years of age (Juárez et al. 2003; Fernandez-Duque 2004). Single offspring are the rule. Wright (1985) recorded births between August and February for A. nigriceps in Peru (Manu National Park), and Aquino et al. (1990) indicated a birth season between December and March for A. nancymaae in north-eastern Peru.
Adult male weight average 0.946±0.14 kg (n=4, range 0.750-1.08 kg), adult female weight 0.907±0.124 kg (n=6, range 0.706-1.05 kg) (S. Evans, unpubl., in Fernandez-Duque 2007).
No major threats identified. Huiman settlement, deforestation, and hunting are undoubtedly affecting populations, but not to the extent of threatening their continued existence.
Large numbers are used in medical research, sometimes illegally, which should be monitored to understand the effect on populations.
This species occurs in the following protected areas:
Jutaí-Solimões Ecological Station (287,101 ha) (in range).
Pacaya-Samiria Natural Reserve (2,080,000 ha) (Aquino and Encarnación 1994b)
Manu National park (1,532,806 ha) (Aquino and Encarnación 1994b)
Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Communal Reserve (Aquino and Encarnación 1994b).
It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1986. Characteristics and use of sleeping sites in Aotus (Cebidae: Primates) in the Amazon lowlands of Peru. American Journal of Primatology 11: 319-331.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1986. Population structure of Aotus nancymai (Cebidae: Primates) in Peruvian Amazon lowland forest. American Journal of Primatology 11: 1-7.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1988. Population densities and goegraphic distribution of night monkeys (Aotus nancymai and Aotus vociferans) (Cebidae: Primates) in northeastern Peru. American Journal of Primatology 14: 375-381.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Owl monkey populations in Latin America: field work and conservation. In: J. F. Baer, R. E. Weller and I. Kakoma (eds), Aotus: The Owl Monkey, pp. 59-95. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.
Aquino, R., Puertas, P. E. and Encarnación, F. 1990. Supplemental notes on population parameters of northeastern Perucvian night monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae). American Journal of Primatology 21: 215-221.
Dixson, A. F. 1983. The owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). In: J. P. Hearn (ed.), Reproduction in New World Primates: new Models in Medical Sciences, pp. 69-113. International Medical Publishers, Lancaster, UK.
Fernandez-Duque, E. 2004. High levels of intrasexual competition in sexually monomorphic owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). Foliia Primatologica 75(1): 260.
Fernandez-Duque, E. 2007. Aotinae: Social monogamy in the only nocturnal haplorhines. In: C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C. Mackinnon, M. Panger and S. K. Bearder (eds), Primates in Perspective, pp. 139-154. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Fernandez-Duque, E. and Huntington, C. 2002. Disappearances of individuals from social groups have imolications for understanding natal dispersal in monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). American Journal of Primatology 57: 219-225.
Gozalo, A. and Montoya, E. 1990. Reproduction in the owl monkey (Aotus nancymai) (Primates: Cebidae) in captivity. Americna Journal of Primatology 21: 61-68.
Hershkovitz, P. 1983. Two new species of night monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary report on Aotus taxonomy. American Journal of Primatology 4: 209–243.
Juárez, C., Rotundo, M. and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2003. Behavioral sex differences in the socially monogamous night monkeys of the Argentinean Chaco. Revista de Etologia 5: 174.
Málaga, C. A., Weller, R. E., Buschbom, R. L., Baer, J. F. and Kimsey, B. B. 1997. Reproduction of the owl monkey (Aotus spp.) in captivity. Journal of Medical Primatology 26: 147-152.
Rotundo, M., Fernandez-Duque, E. and Dixson, A. F. 2005. Infant development and paretnal care in free-rannig groups of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) in Argentina. International Journal of Primatology 36(6): 1459-1473.
Rotundo, M., Fernandez-Duque, E. and Giménez, M. 2002. Cuidado biparental en el mono de noche (Aotus azarai azarai) de Formosa, Argentina. Neotropical Primates 10: 70-72.
Ruiz-Herrera, A., García, F., Aguilera, M., Garcia, M. and Fontanals, M. P. 2005. Comparative chromosome painting in Aotus reveals a highly derived evolution. American Journal of Primatology 65: 73–85.
Villavicencio Galindo, J. M. 2003. Distribución geográfica de los primates del género Aotus en el Departamento Norte de Santander, Colomiba. In: V. Pereira-Bengoa, F. Nassar-Montoya and A. Savage (eds), Primatología del Nuevo Mundo, pp. 264-271. Centro de Primatología Araguatos, Bogotá, Colombia.
Wright, P. C. 1978. Home range, activity pattern, and agonistic encounters of a group of night monkeys (Aotus trivrgatus) in Peru. Folia Primatologica 29: 43–55.
Wright, P. C. 1985. The costs and benefits of nocturnality for Aotus trivirgatus (the night monkey). Ph.D .Thesis, City University of New York.
Wright, P. C. 1989. The nocturnal primate niche in the New World. Journal of Human Evolution 18: 635-638.
Wright, P. C. 1994. The behavior and ecology of the owl monkey. In: J. F. Baer, R. E. Weller and I. Kakoma (eds), The Owl Monkey, pp. 97-112. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
|Citation:||Cornejo, F. & Palacios, E. 2008. Aotus nancymaae. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 December 2013.|