Cephalophus harveyi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Cephalophus harveyi (Thomas, 1893)
Common Name(s):
English Harvey's Duiker, East African Red Duiker, Harvey's Red Duiker
French Céphalophe de Harvey
Taxonomic Notes: Often treated as a subspecies of the Natal Red Duiker C. natalensis (Ansell 1972, Grubb and Groves 2001, Wilson 2001, Grubb 2005), but here retained as a separate species following Kingdon (1982), East (1999) and Kingdon and Rovero (2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-01-07
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M. & Mallon, D.
Harvey's Duiker remains reasonably widespread and is well represented and common in protected areas in its range. Although declining, the rate of decline is not yet considered to have reached a rate meriting a listing as Near Threatened under criterion A. However, the long-term survival of Harvey’s Duiker is increasingly dependent on the maintenance of viable populations within national parks and reserves which are effectively protected against habitat destruction and illegal hunting.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Harvey's Duiker occurs in central and south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern and central Tanzania, marginally in southern Somalia, and northern Malawi, there is a single record from Zambia (Kingdon and Rovero 2013).

In Ethiopia an expedition to the Harenna forest in the southern part of Bale Mountains National Park in 1986 produced positive sightings of a “red” duiker. This was the first confirmed sighting of a Cephalophus duiker from Ethiopia. There has also been a subsequent sighting of this duiker in the same area. While identification of the species awaits confirmation, it is considered highly likely to be Harvey’s Duiker. This species occurs in southern Somalia and could possibly have entered the Bale forests up the Juba and Genale valleys, a route which has been used by forest primates. In 1996, the presence of an unidentified species of red duiker was confirmed in dense bush around and north of the headquarters of Omo National Park in the south-west. The Omo population could be Weyns’s Duiker (C. weynsi), which occurs nearby in the Imatong Mountains of South Sudan 400 km to the south-west (East 1999, Wilson 2001, Kingdon and Rovero 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Kenya; Somalia; Tanzania, United Republic of
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:East (1999) produced a total population estimate of 20,000 individuals, but this must be a substantial underestimate. The overall population trend is downwards as pressures of habitat destruction and subsistence hunting increase with expanding human populations (East 1999).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Harvey’s Duiker occurs in lowland and montane forests, isolated forest patches, riverine forest, coastal scrub, thickets and other habitats with thick cover (East 1999, Kingdon and Rovero 2013). Occurs to elevations above 2,400 m in some Eastern Arc massifs (e.g., in the Ulugurus; Doggart et al. 2004).
Generation Length (years):4.6

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It continues to be heavily hunted for its meat throughout most of its range, using both dogs and wire snares.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats are habitat loss due to timber extraction and encroachment of settlement, especially in the many coastal and montane forests. It continues to be heavily hunted throughout most of its range, using both dogs and wire snares.

In Somalia, this species was recorded from riverine habitats on the lower Shebelle and Juba Rivers and in coastal scrub and forest in the Lake Badana region, but by the mid-l980s, it had lost almost all of its habitat on the Juba and Shebelle Rivers to agricultural expansion and survived in only a few remaining patches of riverine forest on the lower Juba.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is well represented in several protected areas, including Aberdares and Mount Kenya National Parks and Shimba Hills, Tana River, Arabuko-Sokoke, Boni, Dodori, National Reserves (Kenya), Mount Kilimanjaro, Udzungwa Mountains, Mikumi, Arusha and Lake Manyara NPs (Tanzania) and Bale Mountains NP (Ethiopia) (Kingdon and Rovero 2013).

There is a need for further taxonomic work to investigate the status of this species relative to Natal Red Duiker.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

Ansell, W.F.H. 1972. Part 2, 15 Family Artiodactyla. In: J. Meester and H.W. Setzer (eds), The Mammals of Africa: An Identification Manual, pp. 1-84. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Doggart, N., Lovett, J., Mhoro, B., Kiure, J, Perkin, A. and Burgess, N. D. 2004. Biodiversity surveys in the forest reserves of the Uluguru Mountains: a description of the biodiversity of individual Forest Reserves. Tanzania Forest Conservation Group, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder (ed.), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Grubb, P. and Groves, C.P. 2001. Revision and Classification of the Cephalophinae. In: V.J. Wilson (ed.), Duikers of Africa: Masters of the African Floor, pp. 703-728. Chipangali Wildlife Trust, Bulawayo,Zimbabwe.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Kingdon, J. and Rovero, F. 2013. Cephalophus harveyi Harvey's Duiker. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, pp. 261-264. Bloomsbury, London, UK.

Wilson, V.J. 2001. Duikers of Africa: Masters of the African Forest Floor. Directory Publishers, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Cephalophus harveyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T4154A50184807. . Downloaded on 24 May 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided