|Scientific Name:||Cebuella pygmaea|
|Species Authority:||(Spix, 1823)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Cebuella was proposed by Gray (1866) as a subgenus of Hapale (later Callithrix), and soon after as a distinct genus (Gray, 1870). Rosenberger (1981), Rosenberger and Coimbra-Filho (1984), and Natori (1994) argued, on morphological terms, that the Pygmy Marmoset should correctly be included in the genus Callithrix. This was not maintained in Rosenberger et al. (1990), although Barroso (1995), Barroso et al. (1997), Moreira et al. (1996), Schneider et al. (1996), Schneider and Rosenberger (1996), Tagliaro et al. (1997), Porter et al. (1997a), and Canavez et al. (1999a) also argued for this arrangement on the basis of molecular genetics. The argument that Cebuella should be included in the genus Callithrix centers on the conclusion, from both morphological and genetic studies, that the Pygmy Marmoset is more closely related to the Amazonian marmosets (the argentata group of Hershkovitz ) than the latter are to the Atlantic forest marmosets (the jacchus group of Hershkovitz ). Schneider et al. (1993) and Schneider and Rosenberger (1996) also concluded that their molecular genetic data are compatible with jacchus and pygmaea being congeneric. Groves (2001, 2005) places the species in the genus Callithrix, subgenus Cebuella. Although closely related to the Amazonian marmosets, we believe that Cebuella pygmaea deserves generic status. The species shows very distinct features, unique among the callitrichids, involving not only its diminutive size, but also the tree-gouging specialization not observed to nearly the same extent in its Amazonian sister group.
If Cebuella is maintained as a separate genus, then the group would be paraphyletic unless the argentata group marmosets and the jacchus group marmosets are placed in different genera. This was the option adopted, with the Amazonian marmosets being placed in the genus Mico Lesson, 1840 (see below). This decision was also based on the clear identity of the three genera shown in all morphological and molecular studies available.
In 1940, Lönnberg described the subspecies Cebuella pygmaea niveiventris from Lago Ipixuna, south bank of the Rio Solimões, based on its sharply contrasting whitish chest, belly, and inner surface of arms and legs. The ventral surface of C. p. pygmaea is ochraceous. Cruz Lima (1945) and Napier (1976) also recognized and described the two subspecies. Hershkovitz (1977) argued that the colour of the underparts is individually and locally variable invalidating the subspecific status of niveiventris. However, van Roosmalen and van Roosmalen (1997) recently presented evidence for the validity of the two subspecies based on field observations and captive specimens of C. p. niveiventris, and confirmed its presence in the interfluvium of the Rios Purus and Madeira.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||de la Torre, S. & Rylands, A.B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern as the species has a relatively wide distribution range, is common, and there are no major threats resulting in a significant population decline. However, it may be undergoing some localized declines in parts of its range, due mainly to habitat loss.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Following Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen (1997), the Western Pygmy Marmoset C. p. pygmaea occurs in the upper Amazon basin, north of the Rio Solimões in Brazil west from the Rio Japurá, and south of the Río Caquetá in Colombia, Amazonian Ecuador and Peru, north of the Solimões-Amazonas-Marañon, and east (left bank) of the Rio Pastaza in Peru. The easternmost localities in Brazil include the Paraná do Aranapu and Paraná do Jarauá on the lower Rio Japurá. Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) and Defler (2003, 2004) recorded that it is well known south of the Río Caquetá in Colombia, but that reports of its occurrence further north in the upper Río Guaviare region, remain to be confirmed. The only evidence to date is a captive specimen believed to have been obtained from Cano Morrocoy on the south bank of the Río Guaviare. Izawa (1975) reported that it is absent from the Río Peneya, north of the Río Caquetá, and during further surveys was unable to confirm its presence anywhere else north of the Río Caquetá, although in a later publication (Izawa 1979) he indicated that it may occur on the Río Orteguaza, a northern tributary of the uppermost reaches. It would evidently be the subspecies throughout the Ecuadorian Amazon (De la Torre 2000). In Peru, Aquino and Encarnación (1994a) extend the range to the west of the Río Pastaza, to the region of the Cerro Campanquiz and basin of the Río Santiago, south to the Río Mayo in the Department of San Martín, a left bank tributary of the Río Huallaga, and to both sides of Río Marañon. The range south of the Río Marañon west of the Rio Huallaga could belong to either pygmaea or niveiventris according to the distribution proposed by Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen (1997). |
Following Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen’s (1997) hypothesis, the Eastern Pygmy Marmoset C. p. niveiventris would be the form south of the Rio Solimões-Amazonas-Marañon and east of the lower Río Huallaga and middle to upper Río Ucayali. Aquino and Encarnación (1994a) indicated a larger range in Peru, occupying the entire Amazonian lowlands and Andean foothills east of the Río Mayo and the Río Huallaga above the Río Mayo, and including the Río Pachitea and the Río Ucayali basins, south to the upper Río Purus and the basins of the Rió Madre de Dios, and Río de las Piedras and the Rio Tambopata. From there it extends east into northern Bolivia to the region of Cobija (Freese et al. 1982; Buchanan-Smith et al. 2000). In Bolivia, Izawa (1979) and Izawa and Bejarano (1981) confined it to the north and west of the Ríos Orthon and Manuripi, northern tributaries of the Río Madre de Dios. However, Brown and Rumiz (1986) doubt that it occurs as far south as the Río Manuripi, limiting its distribution to the north of the Río Tahuamanu. Buchanan-Smith et al. (2000) confirmed their presence south of the Río Tahuamanu along the Rio Muyumanu. The easternmost record they obtained was at Santa Rosa on the Río Abunã. Its presence in northern Bolivia indicates that it should occur in parts of eastern Acre, including the Ríos Acre and uppermost Abunã, not indicated by Hershkovitz (1977). This was confirmed by Bicca-Marques and Calegaro-Marques (1995). Van Roosmalen and Van Roosmalen (1997) observed Pygmy Marmosets between the lower Rios Purus and Madeira, and indicated a range extending south at least to the Rio Ipixuna (right bank tributary of the Rio Purus). The Río Abunã is a left bank tributary of the Rio Madeira so it is reasonable to believe that Pygmy Marmosets occur throughout the interfluvium of the Rios Purus and Madeira south to the Rio Abunã. The southernmost locality reported so far is the Manu National Park, approximately 12ºS (Soini 1988).
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia); Colombia (Colombia (mainland)); Ecuador; Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is generally considered common (Mittermeier et al. 1978; Coimbra-Filho 1984; Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1985, 1989; Soini 1982; Soini et al. 1989). It can reach very high densities in riparian forest (Soini 1988). Density estimates from a river edge site in the Maniti basin in Peru over three years ranged from 210-227 individuals/km² (Soini 1988). In Ecuador, densities range from 1-6 individuals/km² of river (De la Torre et al, in press). Peres (1997) estimated densities of Cebuella pygmaea at 5 sites: 1) Porongaba, Rio Juruá, 15.9 individuals/km²; 2) Altamira, Rio Juruá, 2.3 individuals/km²; 3) Barro Vermelho, Rio Juruá, 2.2 individuals/km²; 4) Fortuna, Rio Juruá, 4.7 individuals/km²; and 5) Riozinho, Rio Riozinho, 4.3 individuals/km².|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is largely restricted to river-edge forest (Soini 1988) and its abundance in a given locality is dependent on the availability of suitable habitat. However, a number of authors have indicated its occurrence in secondary forest (Moynihan 1976; Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976). It may be particularly abundant in areas moderately affected by agricultural activities and hunting (Soini 1982, 1988) and is capable of existing in isolated forest patches near human settlements (Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1985). It generally travels in the lower layers of the forest, keeping to dense vegetation in the understorey. In Ecuador, it is known to occur between altitudes 200 and 940 m, but usually below 400 m above sea level (Tirira 2007). As in Peru, it shows a marked preference for inundated forests, liana forest, and the edges of rivers and lakes, and can also be found in secondary forest (Tirira 2007). |
Cebuella is a gum-feeding specialist, with behavioural and dental adaptations to gnaw holes in the bark of certain species of trees and vines to stimulate gum production (Soini 1988; Yepez et al. 2005). Saddleback tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis, groups tend to pirate these gum feeding holes wherever the two species are sympatric (Soini 1988, 1993).
Group sizes range from 5-9, with 1-2 adult males and 1-2 adult females. As in other callitrichids, the single breeding female in the group produces twins twice a year, and the adult males and other group members help her to carry them (Soini 1988). Home ranges are typically small from 0.1 to 0.4 ha, centred on one or two trees which supply the gum they need. The entire group will move to a new home range when the gum sources become inadequate (Soini 1988).
Adult male weight 110 g (n=36) (Soini 1988)
Adult female weight 122 g (n=27) (Soini 1988).
|Major Threat(s):||There is hunting in some parts of the range (e.g., in Ecuador), as well as some use as pets. The principal reason for its inclusion on the CITES Appendix I in 1977-1979 (now relegated to Appendix II; see Mack and Mittermeier 1984) was the international trade, particularly from the area of Iquitos, Colombia. There is also some localized habitat loss taking place.|
The following protected areas are within its known range:
Manuripi Health Nature Reserve (1,884,375 ha)
Serra do Divisor National Park (605,000 ha) AC
Abufarí Biological Reserve (288,000 ha) (left bank of Rio Purus) AM
Rio Acre Ecological Station (72,000 ha) AC
Juamí-Japurá Ecological Station (745, 830 ha) AM
Jutaí-Solimões Ecological Reserve (284, 285 ha) AM
Mamirauá State Ecological Station (1,134,000 ha) AM
Amacayacu Natural National Park (INDERENA 1989; Defler 1994, 2003, 2004)
Cahuinarí Natural National Park Within range (Defler 2003, 2004)
La Paya Natural National Park (INDERENA 1989; Polanco-Ochoa et al. 1999) Within range (Defler 2003, 2004).
Yasuni National Park (Tirira 2007)
Limoncocha Biological Reserve (Tirira 2007)
Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno (De Vries et al. 1993; De la Torre et al. 1995b; De la Torre 1996; Tirira 2007)
Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve (Tirira 2007).
Manu National Park (1,532,806 ha) (Terborgh et al. 1984: Gazzo, 1985)
Tingo Maria National Park (18,000 ha)
Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (1,478,800 ha)
Tambopata Natural Wildlife Reserve (5,500 ha).
It is listed on Appendix II of CITES (as Callithrix pygmaea).
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.
Arden, D. D. 1998. 1997 North American Regional Studbook of the Pygmy Marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea). Denver Zoological Gardens, Denver, USA.
Barroso, C. M. L. 1995. Filogenia molecular da subfamília Callitrichinae (sensu Rosenberger, 1981). Doctoral Thesis, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém.
Barroso, C. M. L., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., Harada, M. L., Czelusniak, J. and Goodman, M. 1997. Update on the phylogenetic systematics of New World monkeys: Further DNA evidence for placing the pygmy marmoset (Cebuella) within the genus Callithrix. International Journal of Primatology 18(4): 651-674.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Calegaro-Marques, C. 1995. Updating the known distribution of the pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea) in the state of Acre, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 3(2): 48-49.
Brown, A. D. and Rumiz, D. I. 1986. Distribucion de los primates en Bolivia. In: M. T. de Mello (ed.), A Primatologia no Brasil, pp. 335-363. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasília, Brazil.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Hardie, S. M., Caceres, C. and Prescott, M. J. 2000. Distribution and forest utilization of Saguinus and other primates of the Pando Department, northern Bolivia. International Journal of Primatology 21(3): 353-379.
Canavez, F. C., Moreira, M. A. M., Simon, F., Parham, P. and Seuánez, H. N. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of the Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini, Primates) based on beta2-microglobulin DNA sequences. American Journal of Primatology 48(3): 225-236.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1984. Situação atual dos calitriquídeos que ocorrem no Brasil (Callitrichidae-Primates). In: M. T. de Mello (ed.), A Primatologia no Brasil,, pp. 15-33. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasília, Brazil.
da Cruz Lima, E. 1945. Mammals of Amazônia, Vol. 1. General Introduction and Primates. Contribuições do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi de História Natural e Etnografia, Belém do Pará, Brazil.
Defler, T.R. 1994. La conservación de primates en Colombia. Trianea 5: 255-287.
Defler, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Conservation International, Bogota.
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.
de la Torre, S. 1996. Notes on the distributions of Ecuadorian callitrichids. Neotropical Primates 4(3): 88.
de la Torre, S. 1999. Environmental Correlates of Vocal Communication of Wild Pygmy Marmosets, Cebuella Pygmaea. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin.
de Vries, T., Campos, F., Torre, S., de la, Asanza, E., Sosa, A. and Rodríguez, F. 1993. Investigación y conservación en la Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno. In: P. A. Mena and L. Suárez (eds), La Investigación para la Conservación de la Diversidad Biológica en el Ecuador, pp. 167-221. Ecociencia, Quito, Ecuador.
Freese, C., Heltne, P. G., Castro, R. and Whitesides, G. 1982. Patterns and determinants of monkey densities in Peru and Bolivia, with notes on distributions. International Journal of Primatology 3: 53-90.
Gazzo, C. 1985. Estudio sobre la bioecologiá de Cebuella pygmaea en el Parque Nacional Manu. In: M. Manuand A. Ríos (ed.), Reporte, pp. 9. Centro de Datos para la Conservación, Universidad Agraria, La Molina, Lima, Peru.
Gray, J. E. 1866. Notice of the new species of marmoset monkeys (Hapale and Midas). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1965: 733-735.
Gray, J. E. 1870. Catalogue of monkeys, lemurs and fruit-eating bats in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees British Museum, London, UK.
Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1988. Some aspects of the conservation of non-human primates in Colombia. Primate Conservation 6: 42-50.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1989. Algunos aspectos de la conservación de primates no-humanos en Colombia. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), La Primatología en Latinoamerica, pp. 67-100. WWF-U.S., Washington, DC, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World monkeys (Platyrrhini), with an introduction to Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Inderena. 1989. A Guide to the National Natural Parks System of Colombia. Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Medio Ambiente (INDERENA), Bogota, Columbia.
Izawa, K. 1975. Foods and feeding behavior of monkeys in the upper Amazon basin. Primates 16(3): 295-316.
Izawa, K. 1979. Studies on peculiar distribution pattern of Callimico.
Izawa, K. and Bejarano, G. 1981. Distribution ranges and patterns of nonhuman primates in western Pando, Bolivia. Kyoto University Overseas Research Reports of New World Monkeys 1981: 1-12.
Lönnberg, E. 1940a. Notes on marmosets. Arkiv för Zoologi 32(10): 1-22.
Mack, D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1984. The International Primate Trade. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Washington, DC, USA.
Mittermeier, R. A, Bailey, R. C. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1978. Conservation status of the Callitrichidae in Brazilian Amazonia, Suriname and French Guiana. In: D. G. Kleiman (ed.), Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae, pp. 137-146. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Moreira, M. A. M., Almeida, C. A. S., Canavez, F., Olicio, R. and Seuánez, H. N. 1996. Heteroduplex mobility assays (HMAs) and analogous sequence analysis of a cytochrome b region indicate phylogenetic relationships of selected callitrichids. Journal of Heredity 87: 456-460.
Moynihan, M. 1976. The New World Primates. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of the Primates in the British Museum (Natural History). Part I. British Museum (Natural History), London, UK.
Natori, M. 1994. Craniometrical variations among eastern Brazilian marmosets and their systematic relationships. Primates 35(2): 167-176.
Palanco-Ochoa, R., Jaimes V. and Piragua, W. 1999. Los mamíferos del Parque Nacional Natural La Paya, Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombia Ciencias 23: 671–682.
Peres, C. A. 1997. Primate community structure at twenty western Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13: 381-405.
Porter, C. A., Czelusniak, J., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I. and Goodman, M. 1997. Sequences of the primate epsilon-globin gene: Implications for systematics of the marmosets and other New World primates. Genetics 205(1-2): 59-71.
Rosenberger, A. L. 1981. Systematics: the higher taxa. In: A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, pp. 9-27. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Rosenberger, A. L. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1984. Morphology, taxonomic status and affinities of the lion tamarins, Leontopithecus (Callitrichinae, Cebidae). Folia Primatologica 42: 149-179.
Rosenberger, A. L., Setoguchi, T. and Shigehara, N. 1990. The fossil record of callitrichine primates. Journal of Human Evolution 19: 209-236.
Schneider, H. and Rosenberger, A. L. 1996. Molecules, morphology, and platyrrhine systematics. In: M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber (eds), Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates, pp. 3-19. Plenum Press, New York, USA.
Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Harada, M. L., Barroso, C. M. L., Schneider, M. P. C., Czelusniak, J. and Goodman, M. 1996. Molecular phylogeny of the New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates) based on two unlinked nuclear genes: IRBP Intron 1 and epsilon-globin sequences. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 100: 153-179.
Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., Harada, M. L., Stanhope, M., Czelusniak, J. and Goodman, M. 1993. Molecular phylogeny of the New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 2(3): 225-242.
Soini, P. 1982. Ecology and population dynamics of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea. Folia Primatologica 13: 223-230.
Soini, P. 1988. The pygmy marmoset, genus Cebuella. In: R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds), In Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, pp. 70-129. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Soini, P. 1993. The ecology of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea: some comparisons with two sympatric tamarins. Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology, pp. 257-261. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Soini, P. and Soini, M. 1990. Un estudio y saca experimental de Cebuella pygmaea. La Primatolgia en el Perú, pp. 104-121. Proyecto Peruano de Primatología, Lima, Peru.
Soini, P., Aquino, R., Encarnación, F., Moya, L. and Tapia, J. 1989. Situation of the primates in the Peruvian Amazon. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), In La Primatologia en Latinoamerica, pp. 13-21. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Tagliaro, C. H., Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I. C. and Stanhope, M. J. 1997. Marmoset phylogenetics, conservation perspectives, and evolution of the mtDNA control region. Molecular Bilogy and Evolution 14(6): 674-684.
Terborgh, J., Fitzpatrick, J. W. and Emmons, L. 1984. Annotated checklist of bird and mammal species of Cocha Cashu Biological Station, Manu National Park, Peru. Fieldiana: Zoology 21: 1-29.
Tirira, D.G. 2007. Guía de Campo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Ediciones Murciélago Blanco. Publicación especial sobre los mamíferos del Ecuador 6, Quito, Ecuador.
Torre, S., de la. 2000. Primates de la Amazonía del Ecuador / Primates of Amazonian Ecuador. Sociedad para la Investigación y Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad (SIMBOE), Quito, Ecuador.
Torre, S., de la, Utreras, V. and Campos, F. 1995. An overview of primatological studies in Ecuador: Primates of the Cuyabeno Reserve. Neotropical Primates 3(4): 169-170.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. and Van Roosmalen, T. 1997. An eastern extension of the geographical range of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea. Neotropical Primates 5(1): 3-6.
Yepez, P., de la Torre, S. and Snowdon, C. T. 2005. Interpopulation differences in exudate feeding of pygmy marmosets in Ecuadorian Amazonia. American Journal of Primatology 66(2): 145-158.
|Citation:||de la Torre, S. & Rylands, A.B. 2008. Cebuella pygmaea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41535A10493764.Downloaded on 23 January 2017.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|