|Scientific Name:||Saguinus labiatus|
|Species Authority:||(É. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Taxonomy follows Hershkovitz (1977) except for Saguinus labiatus rufiventer (Gray, 1843), which he listed as a junior synonym of S. l. labiatus. He recognized that Red-bellied Tamarins in the north of their range were distinct but argued that it was probably a clinal variation. However, it was considered a valid subspecies by Groves (2001, 2005), with a provisional distribution (also indicated by Hershkovitz) which extends south from the Rio Solimões between the Rios Madeira and Purus to the Rio Ipixuna, an east bank tributary of the Rio Purus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern as much of the range of species occurs in one of the least disturbed areas of the Brazilian Amazon, and there are currently no major threats to the species.
Saguinus labiatus occurs in the central and south-central Amazon. It occurs south of the Rio Solimões between the Rios Madeira and Purus. The southernmost part of its range extends along the left bank of the Rio Abunã, crossing the headwaters of the Abunã into the Pando region of northern Bolivia, along both sides of the Rio Acre, and south as far the Río Tahuamanu, a tributary of the Río Orthon, itself; a tributary of the Río Beni (Hershkovitz 1977; Buchanan-Smith et al. 2000). Its range in Peru was reported for the first time by Encarnación and Castro (1990). There it occurs on the basin of the Río Acre, extending south as far as the Río Tahuamanu. It also occurs between the Rios Japurá and Solimões, in the region between the left bank of the Tonantins to beyond the Auatí-Paraná.
Saguinus labiatus labiatus (Brazil, Bolivia, Peru)
This subspecies occurs south of the Rio Solimões between the Rios Madeira (left bank) and Purus, on the right bank (Hershkovitz 1977), south from the Rio Ipixuna. It extends along the left bank of the Rio Madeira and Abunã, to Bolivia, crossing the headwaters of the Rio Abunã, as far south as both sides of the Rio Acre, limited to the north of the Río Tahuamanú, a tributary of the Río Orton (tributary of the Río Beni). Extends into far south-eastern Peru, north of the Rio Tahuamanú (Aquino and Encarnación 1994).
Saguinus labiatus thomasi (Brazil)
The range of Saguinus l. thomasi is well separated from the other two subspecies. It is known from very few specimens. According to Hershkovitz (1977), it occurs between the Rios Japurá and Solimões, throughout the region between the left bank of the Tonantins to beyond the Auatí-Paraná. It may extend west as far as the Rio Içá, but there is no record of it occurring in Colombia. In the east, it is probably restricted to terra firma forest, not inhabiting the extensive inundated forest (várzea) near the confluence of the Rios Japurá and Solimões (Silva Jr. 1988).
Saguinus labiatus rufiventer Brazil
Occurs in the central Amazon, south from the Rio Solimões between the Rios Madeira and Purus to the Rio Ipixuna, an east bank tributary of the Rio Purus. Saguinus l. labiatus occurs south of the Rio Ipixuna.
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil (Amazonas, Rondônia); Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is a common species in Espiritu Santo to Rio Nareuda and the Rio Acre in Bolvia, where Heltne et al. (1975) recorded a density of 4.6 groups/km² which translates to about 27 individuals/km². In the Pando, Pook and Pook (1982a) estimated 22 individuals/km² and Yoneda (1981) estimated densities of 7.2-12.2 individuals/km² or 1.7-2.9 groups/km². In Peru, Encarnación and Castro (1978) estimated 3.78 individuals/km² over eight separate locations. Puertas et al. (1995) estimated 18.6 individuals/km² or 2.7 groups/km².|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Red-bellied Tamarins occur in primary and secondary rainforest (Snowdon and Soini 1988). They generally avoid seasonally flooded forest, although they enter it when there is no flooding.
Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet. The dentition of the tamarins (Saguinus and Leontopithecus) does not provide for gouging and they eat gums only when readily available.
Tamarins live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals, but usually 2-8. Puertas et al. (1995) found a mean group size of 6.1 individuals (range 2-10). Hardie (1998) also recorded a mean group size of 6.1 (n=15 groups), and Buchanan-Smith (1999) a mean group size of 6.8 (range 1-13, n=23 groups). Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. Saguinus labiatus groups defend home ranges of 33.5 ha (range 23-41 ha, n=4) (Yoneda 1981), the size depending on seasonality, availability and distribution of foods and second-growth patches.
Red-bellied Tamarins travel and spend most of their time in the middle land upper layers of the forest above 10 m above the ground (Snowdon and Soini 1988). They tend to form mixed-species groups with the smaller, sympatric Saddleback Tamarins Saguinus fuscicollis (see Yoneda 1981, 1984a,b; Buchanan-Smith 1990, 1991b, 1999; Hardie 1998; Heymann and Buchanan-Smith 2000). In Bolivia, they also travel with Callimico goeldii (Pook and Pook 1982a; Buchanan-Smith 1990, 1991a; Porter 2007).
Tamarins are monomorphic - exhibiting only minor differences in body and canine size.
Adult male weight: 491 g (Yoneda 1981),
Aduilt male weight 490 g (n=136) (Puertas et al. 1995)
Adult female weight 529 g (n=77) (Puertas et al. 1995)
|Major Threat(s):||There is no evidence for any major threats to this species, although it may be susceptible to forest destruction and fragmentation in the western Pando region of Bolivia and south-eastern Peru. The species is not hunted to any great extent, but there is some use as pets.|
Saguinus labiatus labiatus probably occurs in the Cuniã Ecological Station (49,886 ha) and the Lago do Cuniã Extractivist Reserve (52,321 ha) in Brazil, but is not recorded from any protected areas in Peru or Bolivia.
Saguinus l. rufiventer possibly occurs in part of the Abufarí Biological Reserve (288,000 ha), Amazonas, to the east of the Rio Purus.
Saguinus labiatus thomasi has not been recorded from any protected areas in Brazil.
This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1990. Polyspecific association of two tamarin species, Saguinus labiatus and Saguinus fuscicollis, in Bolivia. American Journal of Primatology 22(3): 205-214.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1991b. A field study on the red-bellied tamarin, Saguinus l. labiatus, in Bolivia. International Journal of Primatology 12(3): 259-276.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1991. Field observations of Goeldi’s monkey, Callimico goeldii, in northern Bolivia. Folia Primatologica 57: 102-105.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1999. Tamarin polyspecific associations: Forest utilization and stability of mixed species groups. Primates 40: 233-247.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Hardie, S. M., Caceres, C. and Prescott, M. J. 2000. Distribution and forest utilization of Saguinus and other primates of the Pando Department, northern Bolivia. International Journal of Primatology 21(3): 353-379.
Encarnación, F. and Castro, N. 1990. Informe preliminar sobre censo de primates no humanos en el sur oriente peruano: Iberia e Iñapari (Departamento de Madre de Dios), Mayo 15 - Junio 14, 1978. In: M. M. Sommo (ed.), La Primatologia en el Perú. Proyecto Peruano de Primatología, pp. 57-67. Lima, Peru.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hardie, S. M. 1998. Mixed species tamairn groups (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus) in northern Bolivia. Primate Report 5: 39-62.
Heltne, P. G., Freese, C. H. and Whitesides, G. 1975. A field survey of non human primate populations in Bolivia. Final Report. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World monkeys (Platyrrhini), with an introduction to Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Pook, A. G. and Pook, G. 1982. Polyspecific association between Saguinus fuscicollis, Saguinus labiatus, Callimico goeldii and other primates in north-western Bolivia. Folia Primatologica 38: 196-216.
Porter, L. M. 2007. The Behavioral Ecology of Callimicos and Tamarins in Northwestern Bolivia. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
Puertas, P., Encarnación, F. and Aquino, R. 1995. Analisis poblacional del pichico pecho anaranjado, Saguinus labiatus, en el sur oriente peruano. Neotropical Primates 3(1): 4-7.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1993. Systematics, distributions, and some notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In: A. B. Rylands (ed.), Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour and Ecology, pp. 11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Silva Jr., J. de S. 1988. A range extension for Saguinus labiatus thomasi. Primate Conservation 9: 23-24.
Tarifa, T. 1996. Mamiferos. In: P. Ergueta and C. de Morales (eds), Libro rojo de los vertebrados de Bolivia, pp. 165-262. Centro de Datos para la conservacion-Bolivia, La Paz, Bolivia.
Yoneda, M. 1981. Ecological studies of Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus with reference to habitat segregation and height preference. Kyoto University Overseas Research Report of New World Monkeys: 43-50.
Yoneda, M. 1984. Comparative studies on vertical separation, foraging behavior and traveling mode of saddle-backed tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis) and red-chested moustached tamarins (Saguinus labiatus) in northern Bolivia. Primates 25(4): 414-422.
Yoneda, M. 1984. Ecological study of the saddle backed tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis) in northern Bolivia. Primates 25(1): 1-12.
|Citation:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B. 2008. Saguinus labiatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 August 2014.|
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