|Scientific Name:||Saguinus inustus|
|Species Authority:||(Schwarz, 1951)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hernández-Camacho and Defler (1991) indicated the probable existence of two subspecies of S. inustus in Colombia.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Palacios, E., Boubli, J.-P. & Stevenson, P.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern as the species occurs in one of the least disturbed areas of the Brazilian Amazon, shows some adaptability to degraded habitats, and there are currently no major threats to the species.
|Range Description:||Saguinus inustus occurs between the upper Rios Negro and Japurá, west from opposite the Rio Padauarí (64°), a northern tributary of the Rio Negro, into Colombia between the Ríos Apaporis and Guaviare (possibly also occurring in gallery forest of the Río Ariari to the north) to the base of the Serranía La Macarena (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Hershkovitz 1977). Its distribution in Colombia is poorly known (Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1989). Hershkovitz (1977) puts the western limit in the region of the upper Ríos Apaporis and Guaviare. Hernández-Camacho and Defler (1989) reported that it is also known from Cano Yaviya, Río Yarí, Caquetá, and although Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) supposed the Apaporis (left bank) to be the southern limit to its range in Colombia, Hernández-Camacho and Defler (1989) were able to report that it occurs as far south as the left bank of the Caquetá (see Palacios et al. 2004). Hershkovitz (1977) places the eastern limit in Colombia along the Ríos Atabapo and Guainia and Trio Negro and certainly Handley (1976; see also Bodini and Pérez-Hernández 1987) gives no hint that it may occur in Venezuela. It has been observed near the mouth of the Rio Japurá, on the left bank at the Lago Amanã (Souza et al. 2004), which extends its distribution further east between these rivers than was indicated by Hershkovitz (1977).|
Native:Brazil (Amazonas); Colombia (Colombia (mainland))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species can be relatively common where it occurs. On the lower Río Caquetá in Colombia, it has been recorded at 19.6 individuals/km² (Castillo-Ayala and Palacios 2008).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Mottled-face Tamarin occurs in Amazonian lowland, seasonally flooded forest, remnant forests or fringe patches and secondary forest (Snowdon and Soini 1988; Palacios et al. 2004). May be found in primary white-sand forest (campina and campinarana, and also occurs in successional forest, and even seems to prefer these habitats (Defler 2004). Often found in association with villages.
Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet. The dentition of the tamarins (Saguinus and Leontopithecus) does not provide for gouging and they eat gums only when readily available.
Tamarins live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals, but usually 2-8. Palacios et al. (2004) recorded group sizes from three to six (mean 4.4 ±1.14, n=5), but saw larger groups of nine and 11 as well. Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. One Saguinus inustus group was found to defend a home range of 35 ha (Palacios et al. 2004). Mottled-face Tamarins travel and spend most of their time in the lower layers and understorey of the forest up to 10 m above the ground.
Tamarins are monomorphic - exhibiting only minor differences in body and canine size.
Adults H&B 20.8-25.9 cm, TL 33.0-41.0 cm (Hershkovitz 1977).
|Major Threat(s):||This species is common around Indian villages along the lower ríos Caquetá and Apaporís (Palacios et al. 2004). However, plots cultivated by Indians, slash-and-burn agriculture and small-scale logging have transformed many areas within its range. It is probably not hunted, though they are sometimes found as pets.|
|Conservation Actions:||In Brazil, occurs in Jáu National Park (2,272,000 ha) (Barnett et al. 2002; Iwanaga 2004) and the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Souza et al. 2004) and in Colombia only in Nukak National Natural Reserve (855,000 ha). Indigenous lands make up 60-70% of its entire range in Colombia (Delfer 2004). It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.|
Barnett, A. A., Borges, S., de Castilho, C. V., Neri, F. and Shapley, R. L. 2002. Primates of Jaú National Park, Amazonas, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 10: 65-70.
Bodini, R. and Pérez-Hernández, R. 1987. Distribution of the species and subspecies of cebids in Venezuela. Fieldiana: Zoology 39: 231–244.
Castillo-Ayala, C. and Palacios, E. 2008. Density of Saguinus inustus (Schwartz, 1951) at the interfluvium of the Caquetá – Apaporis Rivers, Colombian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 14(3).
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.
de Souza, L. L., Queiroz, H. L. and Ayres, J. M. 2004. The mottled-face tamarin, Saguinus inustus, in the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, Amazonias, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 12(3): 121-122.
Handley Jr., C. O. 1976. Mammals of the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series 20: 1-91.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1989. Algunos aspectos de la conservación de primates no-humanos en Colombia. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), La Primatología en Latinoamerica, pp. 67-100. WWF-U.S., Washington, DC, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World monkeys (Platyrrhini), with an introduction to Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Iwanaga, S. 2004. Levantamento de mamíferos diurnos de médio e grande porte no Parque Nacional do Jaú: Resultados preliminares. In: S. H. Borges, S. Iwanaga, C. C. Durigan and M. R. Pinheiro (eds), Janelas para a Biodiversidade no Parque Nacional do Jaú – Uma Estratégia para o Estudo da Biodiversidade na Amazônia, pp. 195–207. Fundação Vitória Amazônica, Manaus, Brasil.
Palacios, E., Rodríguez, A. and Castillo, C. 2004. Preliminary observations on the mottled-face tamarin (Saguinus inustus) on the lower Río Caquetá, Colombian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 12(3): 2004.
Snowdon, C. T. and Soini, P. 1988. The tamarins, genus Saguinus. In: R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, pp. 223-298. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Palacios, E., Boubli, J.-P. & Stevenson, P. 2008. Saguinus inustus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 March 2014.|