|Scientific Name:||Mico humeralifer|
|Species Authority:||(É. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Formerly in the genus Callithrix (see Rylands et al 1993, 2000, 2008). Groves (2001, 2005) lists this species as Callithrix (Mico) humeralifera.
A pale orange-brown marmoset very similar to M. humeralifer obtained from the Rio Arapiuns in the northern part of the range was photographed by Mittermeier et al. (1988, p.20) in the collection of the Belém Primate Centre. It is believed that this was a chromogenic anomaly.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rylands, A.B. & Silva Jr., J.S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Data Deficient as there is no information on the precise limits of the distribution range of this species, its population status, or threats.
|Range Description:||Field research since the publications of Hershkovitz (1977) and Rylands et al. (1993) has diminished the supposed distribution of the Santarém marmoset. Hershkovitz’s (1977) range is now divided into four, being occupied by marmosets now considered distinct species: M. mauesi, M. saterei and M. acariensis besides M. humeralifer. According to our current understanding, M. humeralifer occurs south of the Rio Amazonas, between the Rio Maués (and possibly its tributary the Rio Parauari) in the west, and the Rio Tapajós in the east. The southern limit is not known, but may be in the region of the Rio Paracari. The southernmost locality for the Santarém marmoset plotted by Hershkovitz (1977) was Vila Braga, 4º25'S, on the Transamazon highway, just north of the Amazonia National Park.|
Native:Brazil (Amazonas, Pará)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no information avaiable on the population status of this species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
An inhabitant of Amazonian lowland rain forest.
Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet (Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier 1976; Rylands 1984). They live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals. Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. The groups defend home ranges 10-40 ha, the size depending on availability and distribution of foods and second-growth patches.
Males 475 g (n=15) (Smith and Jungers 1997)
H&B 20.0-27.0 cm, TL 31.0-37.0 cm (n=10) (Ferrari 2008).
|Major Threat(s):||There is no information on major threats to this species. However, it may be vulnerable because of its proximity to a number of expanding urban centres, as well as the mainstream of the Rio Amazonas, and the resulting forest destruction (Coimbra-Filho 1984). Its distribution is also cut by the Transamazônica highway (BR-230). It is probably not hunted, but there may be some use as pets.|
It occurs in the Amazônia National Park (994 000 ha), Pará, where population surveys were carried out by Ayres and Milton (1981) and Branch (1983).
It is listed on Appendix II of CITES (as Callithrix humeralifera).
Ayres, J. M. and Milton, K. 1981. Levantamento de primatas e seus habitats on rio Tapajós. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi Serie Zoologia 111: 3-11.
Branch, L. C. 1983. Seasonal and habitat differences in the abundance of primates in the Amazon (Tapajós) National Park, Brazil. Primates 24: 424-431.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1984. Situação atual dos calitriquídeos que ocorrem no Brasil (Callitrichidae-Primates). In: M. T. de Mello (ed.), A Primatologia no Brasil,, pp. 15-33. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasília, Brazil.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1976. Exudate-eating and tree-gouging in marmosets. Nature, London 262: 630.
Ferrari, S. F. 2008. Gênero Mico Lesson 1840. In: N. R. dos Reis, A. L. Peracchi and F. R. Andrade (eds), Primatas Brasileiros, pp. 59-75. Technical Books, Londrina, Paraná.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World monkeys (Platyrrhini), with an introduction to Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1988. Systematics: species and subspecies - an update. In: R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, pp. 13-75. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Rylands, A. B. 1984. Exudate-eating and tree-gouging by marmosets (Callitrichidae, Primates). In: A. C. Chadwick and S. L. Sutton (eds), Tropical Rain Forest: The Leeds Symposium, pp. 155–168. Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, Leeds, UK.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1993. Systematics, distributions, and some notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In: A. B. Rylands (ed.), Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour and Ecology, pp. 11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 2008. The systematics and distributions of the marmosets (Callithrix, Callibella, Cebuella, and Mico) and callimico (Callimico) (Callitrichidae, Primates). In: S. M. Ford, L. C. Davis and L. Porter (eds), The Smallest Anthropoids: The Marmoset/Callimico Radiation, Springer, New York, USA.
Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier, R. A., Groves, C. P. and Rodríguez-Luna, E. 2000. An assessment of the diversity of New World primates. Neotropical Primates 8(2): 61-93.
Smith, R. J. and Jungers, W. L. 1997. Body mass in comparative primatology. Journal of Human Evolution 32: 523-559.
|Citation:||Rylands, A.B. & Silva Jr., J.S. 2008. Mico humeralifer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 July 2014.|
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