|Scientific Name:||Macropus eugenii|
|Species Authority:||(Desmarest, 1817)|
The type locality of Macropus eugenii is Saint Peter Island, South Australia, where it is locally extinct.
Three subspecies have been recognised in the recent past: Macropus eugenii eugenii (mainland South Australia and some islands), Macropus eugenii decres (Kangaroo Island) and Macropus eugenii derbianus (south west Western Australia and Western Australian islands) (Poole et al. 1991). Recent unpublished genetic research has suggested that only two subspecies should be recognised, with Kangaroo Island and South Australian mainland subpopulations being the same subspecies (M. Eldridge pers. comm.):
M. e. eugenii is Least Concern;
M. e. derbianus is Least Concern.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Burbidge, A.A. & Woinarski, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Johnson, C.N. & Hawkins, C.|
|Contributor(s):||Copley, P., Eldridge, M., Kabat, X., Legge, S., Morris, K., Sharp, A. & Van Weenen, J.|
Listed as Least Concern because Tammar are abundant on Kangaroo Island and on four islands in Western Australia. On mainland south-western Western Australia they are locally abundant where fox control is in place. On mainland South Australia, they were locally extinct in the wild, but have been reintroduced to Innes National Park from a feral population in New Zealand.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
The Tammar was once widespread in the south-west of Western Australia from near Kalbarri National Park, inland though the wheatbelt and southwards to near Cape Arid, east of Esperance. It now occurs on East (3 km2) and West Wallabi (5.9 km2) Islands (Houtman Abrolhos), Garden Island, (19.5 km2), Middle (10.4 km2) and North Twin Peaks (2.7 km2) Islands (Archipelago of the Recherche), and was illegally introduced to North Island (Houtman Abrolhos) in the 1950s (unsuccessfully) and again in 1987 (Abbott and Burbidge 1995). It has a restricted range on the mainland (including Dryandra, Boyagin, Tutanning and Perup Nature Reserves, Fitzgerald River National Park and several small, remnant wheatbelt subpopulations). It has been reintroduced (assisted colonisation) to Kalbarri National Park, Julimar Forest near Bindoon, Avon Valley National Park, the Darling Range near Dwellingup, Batalling State Forest, and to Paruna and Karakamia Sanctuaries.
In South Australia, it is abundant on Kangaroo Island from where it was introduced to Boston (1971, 9.7 km2), Granite (1970s, removed 1991, 0.32 km2), Wardang (unknown date, 20 km2, source uncertain, still present), Greenly Islands (c. 1905, 1.4 km2) and Althorpe Island (unknown date, 1.6 km2, locally extinct) (Abbott and Burbidge 1995, Robinson et al. 1996, DEH 2009). On the South Australian mainland the Tammar occurred on Yorke Peninsula, Eyre Peninsula, in the Mid North and Adelaide Plains, and the Fleurieu Peninsula east to the Murray River (DEH 2004). It also formerly occurred on Saint Peter, Saint Francis (skeletal remains only), Flinders and Thistle Islands (Robinson et al. 1996). It became extinct on Flinders Island between 1968 and 1974, apparently due to a combination of land clearance and predation by Feral Cats, possibly exacerbated by grazing by Sheep, having been rare for some time before extinction and on Thistle Island due to trapping (Robinson et al. 1996). On the mainland, it became extinct by the 1930s, with extinction presumed to have been due to predation by the introduced Red Fox Vulpes vulpes, hunting and land clearance. Tammar taken to New Zealand by Sir George Grey, were from mainland South Australia (Taylor and Cooper 1990), and were released on Kawau Island, which Grey purchased on his return to New Zealand for his second term as Governor. Tammar from this island were successful reintroduced in 2004-05 to Innes National Park (92 km2), the largest area of native vegetation remaining on Yorke Peninsula (Kemp 2010).
Native:Australia (South Australia, Western Australia)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Historically it was locally very abundant, but it is now much rarer. |
There is no robust estimate of total population size. The Tammar is abundant on Kangaroo Island, where it is considered an agricultural pest by some (Robinson et al. 1996). It is locally abundant in the south-west of Western Australia where fox control is in place. It is abundant on five Western Australian islands; subpopulations on the three in the Houtman Abrolhos have been shown to have low genetic diversity, high levels of effective inbreeding and increased frequency of morphological abnormalities (Miller et al. 2007).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Tammar use dense vegetation for shelter and open grassy areas, including improved pastures around remnant vegetation, for feeding. Each individual has a defined home range, which overlaps with those of other animals (Hinds 2008). They are herbivorous, mostly eating grasses, but also grazing on shrubs. On the mainland, occasional hot fires are needed to regenerate thickets used for shelter (Christensen 1980).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Generation Length (years):||6|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Threats are: predation by Red Foxes (severe to catastrophic); inappropriate fire regimes (severe); predation by feral Cats (minor-moderate); road mortality (minor (Garden Island)).|
This species is known from a number of protected areas. Continued reintroduction programs and fox control programs are important to the conservation of this species. Also important to the species is maintaining an appropriate fire regime within its habitat.
Extensive fox control via baiting in conservation lands in south-western Australia is carried out by the Western Australian Department of Parks and Wildlife. Several reintroductions have been carried out. The Archipelago of the Recherche is a Class A Nature Reserve. The Houtman Abrolhos is a multi-purpose reserve managed by the Western Australian Department of Fisheries. The Department of Defence manages Garden Island. Paruna and Karakamia Sanctuaries are managed by the Australian Wildlife Conservancy and includes exclusion fencing and extensive fox control via baiting.
The Tammar is present in most of Kangaroo Island’s National Parks and Reserves. Destruction permits may be issued to landholders on Kangaroo Island where the species can impact on agriculture. The South Australian Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources manages Innes National Park and its reintroduced Tammar subpopulation. The whole park is fox-baited monthly.
Abbott, I. 2001. Aboriginal names of mammal species in south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3: 433-486.
Abbott, I. and Burbidge, A.A. 1995. The occurrence of mammal species on the islands of Australia: a summary of existing knowledge. CALMScience 1(3): 259-324.
Burrows, N.D., and Christensen, P.E.S. 2002. Long-term trends in native mammal capture rates in a jarrah forest in south-western Australia. Australian Forestry 65: 211-219.
Chambers, B., and Bencini, R. 2010. Road mortality reduces survival and population growth rates of tammar wallabies on Garden Island, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 37: 588-596.
Christensen, P. E. S. 1980. The biology of Bettongia penicillata (Gray 1837) and Macropus eugenii (Demarest 1817) in relation to fire. Bulletin No. 91. Forests Department of Western Australia.
Department for Environment and Heritage. 2004. Translocation proposal: re-introduction of mainland SA Tammar Wallaby to Innes National Park. Department for Environment and Heritage, Adelaide.
Department for Environment and Heritage. 2009. Management Plan. Althorpe Islands, Goose Island and Troubridge Island Conservation Parks. Available at: www.environment.sa.gov.au.
Hinds, L. A. 2008. Tammar Wallaby, Macropus eugenii. In: S. Van Dyck and R. Strahan (eds), The mammals of Australia. Third Edition, pp. 330-332. Reed New Holland, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Hinds, L. A., Poole, W. E., Tyndale-Biscoe, C. H., Vanoorschot, R. A. H., and Cooper, D. W. 1989. Reproductive-biology and the potential for genetic-studies in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Australian Journal of Zoology 37: 223-234.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).
Kemp, L. F. 2010. Establishment, behaviour and ecology of the SA mainland tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii eugenii) following an experimental reintroduction. The University of Adelaide.
Kinnear, J., Sumner, N.R., and Onus, M. L. 2002. The red fox in Australia—an exotic predator turned biocontrol agent. Biological Conservation 108: 335-359.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A.A. and Morris, K. 1996. The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Australasian Marsupial and Monotreme Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
Miller, E. J., Eldridge, M. D. B., Morris, K. D., Zenger, K. R., and Herbert, C. A. 2011. Genetic consequences of isolation: island tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) populations and the conservation of threatened species. Conservation Genetics 12: 1619-1631.
Morris, K., Friend, T., Burbidge, A., and van Weenen, J. 2008. Macropus eugenii. In 'The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species'. Version 2011.2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 4 June 2012).
Poole, W. E., Wood, J. T. and Simms, N. G. 1991. Distribution of the Tammar, Macropus eugenii, and the relationships of populations as determined by cranial morphometrics. Wildlife Research 18: 625-639.
Robinson, T., Canty, P., Mooney, T., and Rudduck, P. 1996. South Australia’s offshore islands. of Environment and Natural Resources, Adelaide.
Taylor, A. C., and Cooper, D. W. 1999. Microsatellites identify introduced New Zealand tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) as an 'extinct' taxon. Animal Conservation 2: 41-49.
|Citation:||Burbidge, A.A. & Woinarski, J. 2016. Macropus eugenii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41512A21953803.Downloaded on 29 September 2016.|
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