Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Cephalophus silvicultor
Species Authority: (Afzelius, 1815)
Common Name(s):
English Yellow-backed Duiker, Western Yellow-backed Duiker
French Céphalophe À Dos Jaune, Céphalophe Géant
Spanish Duiquero De Lomo Amarillo

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)
Listed as Least Concern as the species is widespread and reasonably common, with a total population estimated at more than 150,000 individuals. However, if present trends continue, the yellow-backed duiker’s distribution will become increasingly fragmented and its status will eventually become threatened. Its long-term survival will depend on effective protection of key areas in the equatorial forest and savanna woodland zones of West and Central Africa, as national parks and equivalent reserves and effectively managed hunting zones.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Yellow-backed Duiker has the widest distribution of the forest duikers, ranging from south-western Senegal through all West African countries to south-western Sudan and south-west Uganda, south to northern Angola (including Cabinda) and Zambia; they also occur in the Mau forest in south-west Kenya (Kingdon and Lahm in press). They are now considered extinct in The Gambia (East 1999), although whether they actually ever formerly occurred is uncertain (Grubb et al. 1998). They were thought to have been extirpated from Rwanda (East 1999), but have been confirmed as surviving in the Nyungwe Forest (F. Mulindahabi and A. Vedder pers. comm.).
Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Benin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Togo; Uganda; Zambia
Regionally extinct:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Density estimates are summarized by East (1999), Wilson (2001) and Kingdon and Lahm (in press). East (1999) produced a total population estimate of about 160,000. The population trend is generally decreasing, except for some areas where hunting pressures are low because of low human populations and/or effective protection against poaching.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Throughout most of its range it occurs in moist lowland and montane forests, forest-savanna mosaics, riverine forests gallery forest, thickets and isolated forest patches within moist savanna woodlands; also present in secondary forest, plantations and farm bush (East 1999; Kingdon and Lahm in press).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In much of its range, especially outside protected areas, it has been reduced to low numbers or eliminated by forest destruction, and encroachment of human settlements, coupled with uncontrolled hunting for bushmeat. The species was formerly subject to strict taboos that once protected it in some parts of its range, and it is still considered a non-preferred game species in some areas; however, many of these taboos have broken down.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: About one-third of this estimated population occurs within protected areas, including several in West Africa and Lobeke (Cameroon), Odzala and Nouabale-Ndoki (Republic of Congo), Bangassou (Central African Republic), Monte Allen N.P. (Equatorial Guinea), Bwindi and Queen Elizabeth N.P. (Uganda), Kafue and Kasanka (Zambia), and Ituri (DR Congo) in Central Africa (East 1999; Kingdon and Lahm in press).
Listed on CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability: Marginal  
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Grubb, P., Jones, T.S., Davies, A.G., Edberg, E., Starin, E.D. and Hill, J.E. 1998. Mammals of Ghana, Sierra Leone and The Gambia. Trendrine Press, Zennor, St Ives, Cornwall, UK.

Kingdon, J. and Lahm, S. A. In press. Cephalophus silvicultor. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Wilson, V. J. 2001. Duikers of Africa: Masters of the African Forest Floor. Directory Publishers, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2008. Cephalophus silvicultor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T4150A10477981. . Downloaded on 14 October 2015.
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