|Scientific Name:||Condylura cristata|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer/s:||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern because it is very widespread, common, there are no major threats, and its population is not currently in decline.
|Range Description:||This species is primarily distributed in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, from Labrador, Quebec, and Nova Scotia westward to eastern North Dakota and southeastern Manitoba, and south to Minnesota, Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohio, south in the Appalachians to the Great Smoky Mountains, and south along the Atlantic coast to southeastern Georgia and the northern edge of Florida. It ranges farther north than all other native mole species.|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common over a large range in southeastern Canada and the eastern United States. Its home range probably is about 0.4 ha (Banfield 1974). A density of four to seven per ha has been recorded for swampland (Hamilton 1931). In New York, two to three per ha were found during winter.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The star-nosed mole is seldom far from bodies of water. It prefers wet soils in flood plains, swamps, meadows, and other openings near water. It is a good swimmer and diver, and may be active in water under ice in winter. It is more dependent on water in winter when the ground is frozen. It occasionally occurs in leaf mold on the floor of dense forests. Tunnels may be shallow or deep and may open at the ground surface or under water. The nest usually is placed in a hummock, under a stump or log, in humus among rotten tree roots, or in other areas above high water, often near a stream. Gestation lasts about 45 days. Parturition occurs in spring or early summer (late March-early August in central New York). Litter size is three to seven, with an average of five to six, with one litter per year. They sexually mature in 10 months. They may maintain the pair bond throughout the breeding season.
In some areas this species eats mainly aquatic invertebrates; benthic prey may constitute entire winter diet. Earthworms are abundant in the diet in some areas (Peterson and Yates 1980). It is active all year, and active day or night, but may be more active at night.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||The range of this species includes several protected areas.|
Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The Mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press.
Hamilton, W. J. 1931. Habits of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). Journal of Mammalogy 12(4): 345-355.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Peterson, K. E. and Yates, T. L. 1980. Condylura cristata. Mammalian Species 129: 1-4.
|Citation:||NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Condylura cristata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 May 2013.|
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