|Scientific Name:||Cephalophus leucogaster|
|Species Authority:||Gray, 1873|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Two subspecies have been named, based on minor pelage and size characters: C. l. leucogaster in the western part of the distribution and C. l. arrhenii in the eastern (Hart 2013).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group|
|Reviewer(s):||Hoffmann, M. & Mallon, D.|
Suspected to be close to meeting Vulnerable under criterion A2, i.e. a population decline of 20-25% over 3 generations (14 years) based on increasing and intensive levels of poaching and snaring, to which this species is known to be particularly susceptible. If current trends continue, this species will become increasingly restricted to areas where pressures of forest degradation and hunting are low.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The White-bellied Duiker has a disjunct distribution. In the west it ranges from southern Cameroon, south of the Sanaga River, through Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, northern and south-western Republic of Congo, and the extreme south-western Central African Republic (East 1999, Wilson 2001). In the east it occurs in north-east DR Congo, in the Ituri Forest, Maniema and north Kivu (Hart 2013). There are no confirmed records in between these two areas, in the central cuvette of DRC or south of the Congo river (Hart 2013). Reports from south-eastern Central African Republic and Uganda have also never been confirmed (Hart 2013). The species has not been reported from Cabinda (Angola), though it may possibly occur there, and also in Bas-Congo province of DRC (Hart 2013). Confirmed localities within the two areas of distribution are relatively few and widely scattered.|
Native:Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||White-bellied Duikers generally occur at lower densities than other medium-sized duikers, and are uncommon or rare in most areas where they occur (Wilson 2001, Hart 2013). The species seems to be more abundant in the Ituri Forest where densities of 4.5/km2 in mixed forest and 6.0/km2 in monodominant Gilbertiodendron forests were reported by Hart (2013). East (1999) produced a total population estimate of 287,000 animals, based on average population densities of 2.0 / km2 in areas where it was known to be common and 0.2 / km2 elsewhere, but these figures were apparently extrapolated across the whole of the mapped range, including the central section between the two main areas of occurrence. Like most other duikers of the Central African lowland equatorial forests, its numbers may be stable in areas remote from settlement, or with effective protection from hunting and snaring, but are decreasing elsewhere because of forest degradation and especially hunting. It is very vulnerable to hunting and is one of the first species to disappear under heavy snaring pressure (Hart 2013). The species has large home ranges and its wide-ranging movements also expose to to higher risk from snaring (Hart 2013).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Prefers moist lowland equatorial forests and mature closed-canopy forest; also present in older secondary forests, but absent from swamp forest. It appears to prefer monodominant stands of Gilbertiodendron forest in areas such as Nouabale-Ndoki in Congo-Brazzaville and the lturi Forest in DR Congo (Hart 2013). Also reported to occur in forest-savanna mosaics in northern Gabon (East 1999) and coastal areas of SW Republic of Congo (Hart 2013).|
|Generation Length (years):||4.6|
|Use and Trade:||In Ituri Forest, indigenous Mbuti hunters regularly catch White-bellied Duikers on net drives. Since the persistence of hunting is often determined by the frequency of capture of more abundant species such as the Blue Duiker Philantomba monticola, White-bellied Duikers could be hunted to local depletion or extirpation, even when already rare (Hart 2000). The species' wide-ranging movements over large home-ranges expose it to higher risk by snare capture than more sedentary species.|
|Major Threat(s):||The major threat to this species, especially given its occurrence at low densities, is hunting (both with snares and nets), to which it is extremely vulnerable, and it is one of the first species to drop out of the small ungulate fauna in areas subject to heavy snaring pressure (Hart 2013).|
|Conservation Actions:||Important protected areas for this species include Lopé Reserve (Gabon), Monte Alén N.P. (Equatorial Guinea), Dzangha-Ndoki N.P. (CAR), Odzala and Nouabale-Ndoki NPs (Congo), and Kahuzi-Biega N.P., Maiko N.P. and Okapi Faunal Reserve (DR Congo) (East 1999, Hart 2013). Okapi Faunal Reserve is a stronghold for the species management of the bushmeat trade there would benefit conservation of the species (Hart 2013).|
East, R. (Compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hart, J. 2000. Impact and sustainability of indigenous hunting in the Ituri Forest, Congo-Zaire: a comparison of unhunted and hunted duiker populations. In: J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett (eds), Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests, pp. 106-153. Columbia University Press, New York.
Hart, J.A. 2013. Cephalophus leucogaster White-bellied Duiker. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer and Bovids, pp. 255-258. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Wilson, V.J. 2001. Duikers of Africa: Masters of the African Forest Floor. Directory Publishers, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Cephalophus leucogaster. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T4141A50182823.Downloaded on 22 October 2016.|
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