|Scientific Name:||Sylvilagus brasiliensis|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hall (1981) recognizes the following subspecies occurring in North America: Sylvilagus brasiliensis consobrinus, S. b. dicei, S. b. gabbi, S. b. incitatus, S. b. messorius, and S. b. truei. S. b. dicei has been recognized as a good species since the publication of Hall (1981). Hoffmann and Smith (2005) recognize the following subspecies as occurring south of the Isthmus of Panama: S. b. andinus, S. b. apollinaris, S. b. capsalis, S. b. caracasensis, S. b. chillae, S. b. chotanus, S. b. defilippi, S. b. fulvescens, S. b. gibsoni, S. b. inca, S. b. kelloggi, S. b. meridensis, S. b. minensis, S. b. paraguensis, S. b. peruanus, S. b. sanctaemartae, S. b. surdaster, and S. b. tapetillus. S. brasiliensis is in need of a systematic revision (Chapman and Ceballos 1990).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mexican Association for Conservation and Study of Lagomorphs (AMCELA), Romero Malpica, F.J. & Rangel Cordero, H.|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, A.T. & Boyer, A.F. (Lagomorph Red List Authority)|
Sylvilagus brasiliensis is a widespread (Chapman and Ceballos 1990) and fairly common species that does not appear to be experiencing a severe decline (Reid 1997).
|Range Description:||Sylvilagus brasiliensis occurs from southern Tamaluipas, Mexico along the eastern coast of Mexico (excluding the states of Yucatan, Quintana Roo, and Campeche), through Guatemala, (possibly) El Salvador, Honduras, eastern Nicaragua, eastern Costa Rica, Panama, and through the northern half of South America (except at high altitudes), including Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, northern Argentina, and most of Brazil. Distribution in the Amazon region is unknown (Chapman and Ceballos 1990; Hoffmann and Smith 2005). It occurs at elevations ranging from sea level to 4,800 m (Ruedas and Salazar-Bravo 2007).|
Native:Argentina (Catamarca, Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, Santa Fé, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán); Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Brasília Distrito Federal, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins); Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico (Chiapas, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz); Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||No recent population assessments are available, but in Mexico, Sylvilagus brasiliensis populations are known to decline when its habitat is deforested, though it is able to survive well in second growth forest and pasture (Alvarez de Toro 1977). According to Durant (1986), abundance of S. b. meridensis in high mountains of Venezuela was reduced to 0.04 animals/ha from previously recorded levels of 4.8 animals/ha due to habitat loss.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Sylvilagus brasiliensis primarily inhabits tropical rain forests, deciduous forests, and second growth forests in Mexico and Central America (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). It is also found in pastures bordering forest habitat (Chapman and Ceballos 1990).
As recorded in two localities, Chiapas, Mexico, and the Andean Paramos in South America, S. brasiliensis reproduces year-round (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). Gestation time is variable according to location (28-44 days) (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). This species has a small mean litter size (1.2) compared to other members of the genus (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). Total length ranges form 25.0-42.0 cm (Cervantes et al. 2005).
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat loss by deforestation and human settlement poses a threat to this species. As artificial savanna and scrubland replaces tropical forest, S. floridanus range expands and displaces S. brasiliensis (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). This species may be at risk to predators that follow S. floridanus as it spreads new habitat that borders its own (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). The effect of deforestation on the abundance of S. brasiliensis is not well known (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). In Mexico populations decline when habitat is deforested, but S. brasiliensis is known to do well in pasture and second growth forest (Alvarez de Toro 1977).|
|Conservation Actions:||Sylvilagus brasiliensis is in need of a systematic survey. Its distribution remains unclear with regard to the Amazon region and most of the ecological data is from studies of rabbits in the Paramos of Venezuela (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). The effect of deforestation on abundance requires more study (Chapman and Ceballos 1990).|
Alvarez de Toro, M. 1977. Los Mamiferos de Chiapas. Gobierno del Estado, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, CS, Mexico.
Cervantes, F. A., Zavala, V. I. and Colmenares, A. L. 2005. Sylvilagos brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Conejo tropical. In: G. Ceballos and G. Oliva (eds), Los mamiferos silvestres de Mexico, pp. 840-841. Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Fondo de Cultura Economica, Mexico, D. F.
Chapman, J. A. and Ceballos, G. 1990. Chapter 5: The Cottontails. In: J. A. Chapman and J. C. Flux (eds), Rabbits, hares and pikas: status survey and conservation action plan, pp. 95-110. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Durant, P. 1986. Relaciones filogeneticas y ecologia del conejo de paramo. 6: 5-85.
Hall, E.R. 1981. The Mammals of North America. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
Hoffmann, R. S. and Smith, A. T. 2005. Order Lagomorpha. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 185-211. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Reid, F. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Ruedas, L. A. and Salazar-Bravo, J. 2007. Morphological and chromosomal taxonomic assessment of Sylvilagus brasiliensis gabbi (Leporidae). Mammalia 71(1-2): 63-69.
|Citation:||Mexican Association for Conservation and Study of Lagomorphs (AMCELA), Romero Malpica, F.J. & Rangel Cordero, H. 2008. Sylvilagus brasiliensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 August 2014.|
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