|Scientific Name:||Lepus alleni|
|Species Authority:||Mearns, 1890|
|Taxonomic Notes:||There are currently three recognized subspecies, Lepus alleni alleni, L. a. palitans, and L. a. tiburonensis (Hall 1981).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Mexican Association for Conservation and Study of Lagomorphs (AMCELA), Romero Malpica, F.J. & Rangel Cordero, H.|
|Reviewer/s:||Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. (Lagomorph Red List Authority)|
This species is considered widespread with stable populations throughout much of its distribution. As such it does not qualify for threat status under current criteria. Recent declines in southern Arizona should be monitored. Status of the insular population, L. a. tiburonensis, should be reviewed. This subspecies is currently listed under Mexican Official Norm NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001 and granted "special protection" (AMCELA pers. comm.).
|Range Description:||Lepus alleni occurs from south-central Arizona (USA) to northern Sonora, Sinaloa, and the northern part of Nayarit (Mexico) and Tiburon Island in the Gulf of California, Mexico (Best and Henry 1993). It also occurs in the extreme south-west region of Chihuahua (Cuenca and Cervantes 2005). This species can be found at elevations ranging from sea level (Sonora) to 1,500 m (southern Arizona) (Best and Henry 1993).|
Native:Mexico (Chihuahua, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Sonora); United States (Arizona)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Lepus alleni populations do not experience cyclic fluctuations in population density (Flux and Angermann 1990). There are undocumented reports of population declines in southern Arizona. The average population density is 0.3/ha (Swihart 1986). L. a. tiburonensis is considered endemic and rare.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Lepus alleni is associated with common dense scrub. This species is nocturnal and crepuscular (Best and Henry 1993). In Arizona, L. alleni occurs in a variety of habitats, but is most common in areas with desert shrub and grasses (Best and Henry 1993). In areas of southern Arizona where Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) has become established population numbers of L. alleni have been declining (Best and Henry 1993). In Mexico, L. alleni is sited along coastal foothills, low and open grasslands, and the arid upper-tropical subzone (Best and Henry 1993). The average home range is 642.8 ha (Swihart 1986). The breeding season extends from January to October and gestation is approximately 42 days (Vorhies and Taylor 1933). L. alleni is capable of having seven litters per year with an average litter size of 1.93 (Flinders and Chapman 2003). It is estimated that L. alleni reaches sexual maturity between seven to 11 months, based on related species (Lepus, californicus, L. callotis, and L. flavigularis) (AMCELA pers. comm.).
Studies analyzing stomach content determined the diet of L. alleni. Various grass species (45%), mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) (36%) and several cacti species (7.8%) constituted the bulk of their intake (Vorhies and Taylor 1933). Overall percentages varied according to seasonal precipitation (Flinders and Chapman 2003). The total length is 55.3-67.0 cm (Hall and Kelson 1959). Specimen measurements, from the National Mammalogy Collection at UNAM (CNMA), show that L. a. tiburonensis tends to be smaller with total length ranging from 50.0-60.5 cm (AMCELA pers. comm.).
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat changes are occurring along the coasts of Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora as a result of expanding agriculture (Best and Henry 1993). The impact has been negligible, but it is anticipated that problems associated with habitat change will produce population declines (Chapman et al. 1983). Hunting for sport and local subsistence, human perturbation and exotic predation are considered threats for this species. In some places the animal competition (livestock), habitat fragmentation and human-induced fire represent important threats for their populations. Competition from L. californicus could become a future threat, as the black-tailed jackrabbit's range expands (Flux and Angermann 1990).|
|Conservation Actions:||The presence of Lepus alleni alleni has been verified within Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge in southern Arizona. L. alleni tiburonensis is currently listed under Mexican Official Norm NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001, because it is an insular and endemic species, granting it "special protection" (AMCELA pers. comm.).|
Best, T. L. and Henry, T. H. 1993. Lepus alleni. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species 424: 1-8.
Chapman, J. A., Dixon, K. R., Lopez-Forment, W. and Wilson, D. E. 1983. The New World jackrabbits and hares (genus Lepus). 1. Taxonomic history and population status. Acta Zoologica Fennica 174: 49-51.
Cuenca, J. V. and Cervantes, F. A. 2005. Lepus alleni Mearns, 1890. In: G. Ceballos and G. Oliva (eds), Los Mamiferos Silvestres de Mexico, pp. 825-826. Comision Nacional para el Concimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad and Fondo de Cultura Economica, Mexico, D. F.
Flinders, J. T. and Chapman, J. A. 2003. Black-tailed Jackrabbit (Lepus californicus and Allies). In: G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson and J. A. Chapman (eds), Wild Mammals of North America, pp. 126-146. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
Flux, J. E. C. and Angermann, R. 1990. Chapter 4: The Hares and Jackrabbits. In: J. A. Chapman and J. E. C. Flux (eds), Rabbits, Hares and Pikas: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 61-94. The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland.
Hall, E. R. 1981. The Mammals of North America. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
Hall, E. R. and Kelson, K. R. 1959. The Mammals of North America. Ronald Press, New York, USA.
Swihart, R. K. 1986. Home range - body mass allometry in rabbits and hares (Leporidae). Acta Theriologica 31: 139-148.
Vorhies, C. I. and Taylor, W. P. 1933. The life histories and ecology of the jackrabbits Lepus alleni and Lepus californicus in relation to grazing in Arizona. University of Arizona Agriculture Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 49: 15-18.
|Citation:||Mexican Association for Conservation and Study of Lagomorphs (AMCELA), Romero Malpica, F.J. & Rangel Cordero, H. 2008. Lepus alleni. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 March 2014.|
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