|Scientific Name:||Ochotona rufescens (Gray, 1842)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Subgenus Conothoa. There are four recognized subspecies: Ochotona rufescens rufescens (includes seiana, vulturine; east Afghanistan), O. r. regina (Kopet Dagh Mountains between Turkmenistan and Iran), O. p. vizier (Khorud Range, Iran) and O. r. shukurovi (southwest Turkmenistan in the Greater Balkhans). Some earlier accounts included seiana in O. curzoniae, but they are clearly independent.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.|
Ochotona rufescens is a widespread species that does not appear to be experiencing a significant decline. It is therefore listed Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Ochotona rufescens is a widespread species that occurs in the mountains of southwestern Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran (Smith et al. 1990).|
O. rufescens is found between 1,900 and 3,500 m in elevation (Chakraborty et al. 2005).
Native:Afghanistan; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Pakistan; Turkmenistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A population found on the Small Balkan Ridge may be endangered due to isolation, but it is unclear whether this population is the subspecies shukurovi or regina (Smith et al. 1990). The subspecies O. r. shukurovi is found in the Great Balkhan Mountains and is isolated but does not appear to be threatened (Smith et al. 1990).|
Population density of O. rufescens may reach 70 individuals per hectare, but this is variable depending on weather conditions (Smith et al. 1990).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Ochotona rufescens is most commonly found in rocky desert habitat, but may create burrow systems in fields where no stones exist. O. rufescens also burrows in adobe houses and walls (Smith et al. 1990). The species may be found in juniper forests and prefers habitats with vegetation cover between 30% and 60%, not higher (Smith et al. 1990). |
O. rufescens survives on a diet of native xeric plants, such as thistles, Ephedra and Artemisia, creating haypiles to store vegetation twice in each year (Smith et al. 1990). O. rufescens also consumes agricultural crops, making it a pest to humans in some areas (Smith et al. 1990).
The reproductive rate of O. rufescens is high, with litter size averaging from 5.2 to 7.1, producing as many as five litters annually. The breeding season is long, from mid-March to late September, and young individuals begin breeding in their first summer (Smith et al. 1990).
Because Ochotona rufescens is considered a pest in some areas where it damages agricultural crops, it has been subject to control (Smith et al. 1990). The spread of agriculture also constitutes a threat, as habitat is converted to farmland, after which the pikas feed on crops, particularly by debarking trees in orchards (Smith et al. 1990).
A population of O. rufescens on the Small Balkan Ridge may be endangered due to isolation. It is also unclear to which subspecies this population belongs, as it is found between populations of O. r. shukrovi and O. r. regina (Smith et al. 1990).
O. rufescens is the only pika that has been domesticated for laboratory research, where it was once used in France and Japan, though this is probably not a future threat to wild populations (Smith et al. 1990).
|Conservation Actions:||No conservation measures are currently in place for Ochotona rufescens.|
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|Citation:||Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C. 2016. Ochotona rufescens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41269A45184750.Downloaded on 11 December 2017.|