Nyctimystes infrafrenatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hylidae

Scientific Name: Nyctimystes infrafrenatus (Günther, 1867)
Common Name(s):
English White-lipped Tree Frog, Australian Giant Treefrog, Giant Treefrog
Hyla infrafrenata Günther, 1867
Litoria infrafrenata (Günther, 1867)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2017. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This form might be a complex of more than one species (S. Richards pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Iskandar, D., Mumpuni, Hero, J., Retallick, R. & Richards, S.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in Indonesia and East Timor on the islands of Timor and Karakelong (Talaud Group). In Australia this species is known from coastal and adjacent areas of northeastern Queensland, north of Townsville and extending around Cape York Peninsula and into the Gulf of Carpentaria. It is also widespread throughout the lowlands of New Guinea, and on the Maluku Islands to the west, and to the east as far as New Ireland in the Bismarck Archipelago. It occurs up to about 600 m asl in New Guinea.
Countries occurrence:
Australia; Indonesia; Papua New Guinea; Solomon Islands; Timor-Leste
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is abundant throughout its range.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits a wide variety of habitats including tropical rainforest, monsoon woodlands, and wet sclerophyll forest. It persists in heavily modified environments including human habitation such as in gardens, within houses, parks, fields, agricultural areas, and roadsides and disturbed forest. It is usually active on warm and humid nights. Breeding is in the spring and summer, in forest pools, deep and slow streams, and in ditches and pools in disturbed (including urban) areas. Eggs are laid in clumps and tadpoles develop in about eight weeks.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Most of the trade is international, with a small amount being national for pets in Jakarta.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Loss of habitat through logging is a threat within its Australian range. It is sold for the pet trade in Indonesia and internationally, but this is unlikely to represent a threat to its survival. Impacts on local populations of the trade have not been documented.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures needed. The range of the species includes a few protected areas, however in New Guinea these are in need of better management. The impacts of capture in Indonesia for the pet trade need to be assessed, but it is unlikely to be a threat to the species overall. It is often bred in captivity in Australian zoos.

Amended [top]

Amended reason: This species was previously assessed under the genus Litoria, but is now treated under Nyctimystes.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.3. Wetlands (inland) - Shrub Dominated Wetlands
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.14. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy

Bibliography [top]

Banks C.B., Birkett, J.R., Dunn, R.W. and Martin, A.A. 1983. Development of Litoria infrafrenata (Anura: Hylidae). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia: 197-200.

Barker, J., Grigg, G. and Tyler, M. 1995. A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, New South Wales.

Cogger, H.G. 1992. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. Reed Books, New South Wales.

Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, Sixth Edition. Reed New Holland, New South Wales.

Iskandar, D.T. and Colijn, E. 2000. Preliminary checklist of Southeast Asian and New Guinean herpetofauna I. Amphibians. Treubia suppl. 31(3): 1-134.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2004).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Richards, S.J., Oliver, P., Dahl, C., and Tjaturadi, B. 2006. A new species of large green treefrog (Anura: Hylidae: Litoria) from northern New Guinea. Zootaxa 1208: 57-68.

Tyler, M.J. 1968. Papuan hylid frogs of the genus Hyla. Zoologische Verhandelingen: 1-203.

van Kampen, P.N. 1923. The Amphibia of the Indo-Australian archipelago. Brill, E.J., Leiden, Netherlands.

Citation: Iskandar, D., Mumpuni, Hero, J., Retallick, R. & Richards, S. 2017. Nyctimystes infrafrenatus (amended version of 2004 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T41095A114114070. . Downloaded on 16 October 2018.
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