Rhinella marina 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Cane Toad, Agua Toad, Giant Marine Toad, Giant Toad, Marine Toad, Shoulder-knot Frog
French Crapaud
Spanish Sapo Común, Sapo Grande
Bombinator horridus (Daudin, 1802)
Bombinator maculatus Merrem, 1820
Bufo agua Latreille, 1801
Bufo albicans Spix, 1824
Bufo angustipes Taylor & Smith, 1945
Bufo brasiliensis Laurenti, 1768
Bufo horridus Daudin, 1802
Bufo humeralis Daudin, 1803
Bufo lazarus Spix, 1824
Bufo maculiventris Spix, 1824
Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Bufo marinus ssp. horribilis Lynch & Fugler, 1965
Bufo marinus ssp. horribilis Cei, Erspamer & Roseghini, 1968
Bufo marinus ssp. marinus Schmidt, 1932
Bufo pithecodactylus Werner, 1899
Bufo pythecodactylus Rivero, 1961
Bufo horribilis Wiegmann, 1833
Docidophryne agua (Latreille, 1801)
Docidophryne Lazarus (Spix, 1824)
Phrynoidis agua (Latreille, 1801)
Rana brasiliana (Laurenti, 1768)
Rana gigas Walbaum, 1784
Rana humeris-armata Lacépède, 1788
Rana marina Linnaeus, 1758
Rana maxima Merrem, 1820
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Rhinella marina is generally considered to be a complex of several species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, Geoffrey Hammerson, Blair Hedges, Arvin Diesmos, Masafumi Matsui, Jean-Marc Hero, Stephen Richards, Luis Coloma, Santiago Ron, Enrique La Marca, Jerry Hardy, Robert Powell, Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves, Paulino Ponce
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S., Chanson, J., Cox, N. & Young, B. (Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species ranges from southern Texas, USA, through tropical Mexico and Central America to northern South America (central Brazil and Amazonian Peru and northern parts of Amazonian Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela [including Margarita Island] and the Guianas, throughout Trinidad and Tobago). It is introduced in southern Florida, Puerto Rico (introduced in the 1920s), St Croix, St Thomas, Hawaii (introduced from Puerto Rico in 1932, now common on all main islands), Jamaica (including Cabarita Island) (introduced from Barbados in 1844, common throughout island in lowlands), the U.S. Virgin Islands, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), St Kitts, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, the Grenadines, Martinique, St Lucia, St Vincent, Barbados, Aruba, Grenada, Guam (McCoid 1993), Saipan (Wiles and Guerrero 1996), and many other tropical and subtropical localities (Schwartz and Henderson 1988). It is also an invasive and introduced species in much of the lowlands of Papua New Guinea, the Admiralty and Bismarck Islands and the Solomon Islands. It was introduced to Australia in 1935, to north tropical Queensland to control sugar cane pests (which it failed to do). Now the southern limit of its distribution is near Coffs Harbour in northeastern New South Wales, and its range extends through most of Queensland and into the Northern Territory to Kakadu National Park (first recorded at Koolpin Gorge, 24 June 2002 and Twin Falls, 10 June 2002). It is also introduced and now widespread in the Philippines. It is found on most of the major islands. It was introduced into Japan first from Hawaii to Taiwan, Province of China, and then from Taiwan through Daito Islands (1930) to Ishigaki Island (1978). The population of Bonin Island was introduced from Guam, which in itself had the species introduced in 1937 (Christy et al. 2007). It is also found on Hatomajima. It occurs from sea level up to 3,000 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; United States (Florida - Introduced, Hawaiian Is. - Introduced, Texas); Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Australia; Barbados; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Haiti; Jamaica; Japan; Martinique; Montserrat; Northern Mariana Islands; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Solomon Islands; Taiwan, Province of China; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):3000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a very abundant species, and its range is increasing.
Current Population Trend:Increasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A nocturnal and terrestrial toad that inhabits humid areas with adequate cover, including cane fields, savannah, open forest, well watered yards and gardens. It also inhabits dry equatorial forests. It thrives in degraded habitats and man-made environments, and is occasionally found in pristine lowland and montane rainforests, but generally prefers open or disturbed habitat such as tracks, roads, low grassland and areas that are near human settlement, e.g. grazing land, suburban parks and gardens. It tends to avoid more densely vegetated areas (eg. wet sclerophyll and rainforest), which can then act as a barrier to their dispersal. It can be found by day beneath fallen trees, loose boards, matted coconut leaves, and similar cover (Lynn 1940). It feeds on arthropods (especially ants and termites) and small vertebrates. It is flexible regards breeding site (Evans et al. 1996); eggs and larvae develop in slow or still shallow waters of ponds, ditches, temporary pools, reservoirs, canals, and streams. Clutch size is between 8,000 and 17,000. Eggs and tadpoles are poisonous and displace native tadpoles. It may sometimes breed in slightly brackish water in Hawaii. Larvae are tolerant of high temperatures.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species has been put to various uses across its geographic range. It is used for educational purposes, skins are used for bags in Mexico and for drum skins in Papua New Guinea, while whole animals are stuffed and sold as souvenirs in Nicaragua. Some toads are taken for traditional medicinal uses and then released.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Overall, there are no significant threats to this very adaptable, invasive species. Introduced animals are carrying salmonella in Puerto Rico, putting other native species at risk. In some parts of its introduced range it competes with native frogs and has a negative impact on native wildlife that attempt to consume it. Survival and development of tadpoles in Bermuda are being affected both by contaminants found in a number of its ponds and by transfer of accumulated contaminants (Bacon et al. 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures needed for this highly invasive species; rather, conservation measures for those species adversely affected by the expansion of the range of this species are what is required. Research on biology, impacts and methods to control their population growth in Australia are in place, but to date no effective controls have been implemented. In Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Philippines and Japan, the impacts of this species on native frogs should be examined. An officially organized eradication programme has been initiated in the Grenadines (Daudin and Silva 2007).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.5. Marine Intertidal - Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses)
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.4. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.5. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Freshwater Lakes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.4. Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.6. Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
0. Root -> 16. Introduced vegetation

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

Alcala, A.C. and Brown, W.C. 1985. Philippine Amphibians: An Illustrated Field Guide. Bookmark Press, Makati City, Philippines.

Bacon, J.P., Gray, J.A. and Kitson, L. 2006. Status and conservation of the reptiles and amphibians of the Bermuda islands. Applied Herpetology 3: 323-344.

Barbour, R.W. 1916. Amphibians and reptiles from Tobago. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 29: 221-224.

Barker, J., Grigg, G. and Tyler, M. 1995. A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, New South Wales.

Barrio Amorós, C.L. 2004. Amphibians of Venezuela Systematic List, Distribution and References, An Update. Review of Ecology in Latin America 9(3): 1-48.

Boettger, O. 1895. A contribution to the herpetological fauna of the Island of Tobago. Journal of the Trinidad Field Naturalists' Club 2(6): 145-146.

Breuil, M. 2002. Histoire naturelle des Amphibiens et Reptiles terrestres de l'archipel Guadeloupéen. Guadeloupe, Saint-Martin, Saint-Barthélemy. Patrimoines Naturels 54: 1-339.

Breuil, M. 2004. Amphibiens et Reptiles des Antilles. PLB Editions, Guadeloupe.

Brown, R.M., Diesmos, A.C. and Alcala, A.C. 2001. The state of Philippine herpetology and the challenges for the next decade. Silliman Journal 42(1): 18-87.

Burrowes, P.A., Joglar, R.L. and Green, D.E. 2004. Potential causes for amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. Herpetologica 60(2): 141-154.

Cei, J.M. 1972. Bufo of South America. In: W.F. Blair (ed.), Evolution in the Genus Bufo, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, USA.

Christy, M.T., Clark, C.S., Gee II, D.E., Vice, D., Vice, D.S., Warner, M.P., Tyrrell, C.L., Rodda, G.H. and Savidge, J.A. 2007. Recent records of alien anurans on the Pacific Island of Guam. Pacific Science 61(4): 469?483.

Cisneros-Heredia, D.F. 2003. La herpetofauna de la Estación de Biodiversidad Tiputini, Provincia de Orellana, Amazonia Ecuador. Mem. 1er Congreso Ecuatatoriano de Ecologia and Ambeinte, Univ. San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador.

Crossland, M.R. 2000. Direct and indirect effects of the introduced toad Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) on populations of native anuran larvae in Australia. Ecography 23(3): 283-290.

Daudin, J. and de Silva, M. 2007. An annotated checklist of the amphibians and terrestrial reptiles of the Grenadines with notes on their local natural history and conservation. Applied Herpetology 4: 163-175.

De la Riva, I. 2002. Taxonomy and distribution of the South American toads, Bufo poeppigii Tschudi, 1845 (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae). Graellsia 58(1): 49-57.

Easteal, S. 1986. Bufo marinus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 395: 1-4.

Ernst, R., Rödel, M-O. and Arjoon, D. 2005. On the cutting edge – The anuran fauna of the Mabura Hill Forest Reserve, Central Guyana. Salamandra 41(4): 179-194.

Freeland, W.J. 1985. The need to control Cane Toads. Search 16(7-8): 211-215.

Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.

Gaston, K.J. and Williams, P.H. 1996. Spatial patterns in taxonomic diversity. In: K.J. Gaston (ed.), Biodiversity – A biology of numbers, difference, pp. 202-229. Blackwell Science Ltd. University Press, Cambridge.

Hardy Jr., J.D. 1982. Biogeography of Tobago, West Indies, with special reference to amphibians and reptiles. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 18(2): 37-142.

Hedges, S.B. 1993. Global amphibian declines: a perspective from the Caribbean. Biodiversity and Conservation 2(3): 290-303.

Hedges, S.B. 1999. Distribution of amphibians in the West Indies. In: W.E. Duellman (ed.), Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective, pp. 211-254. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

Hedges, S.B. 2001. Caribherp: database of West Indian amphibians and reptiles ( Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Heyer, W.R., Coddington, J., Kress, W.J., Acevedo, P., Cole, D., Erwin, T.W., Meggers, B.J., Pogue, M.G., Thorington, R.W., Vari, R.P., Weitzman, M.J. and Weitzman, S.H. 1999. Amazonian biotic data and conservation decisions. Ciência e Cultura 51: 372-385.

Ibañez, R., Rand, A.S. and Jaramillo, C.A. 1999. Los anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y áreas adyacentes. Mizrachi, E. and Pujol, S.A., Santa Fe de Bogota.

Ibáñez, R., Solís, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. 2000. An overview of the herpetology of Panama. In: J.D. Johnson, R.G. Webb and O.A. Flores-Villela (eds), Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation, pp. 159-170. The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.

Inger, R.F. 1954. The systematics and zoogeography of Philippine Amphibia. Fieldiana 33: 181-531.

Inger, R.F. 1999. Distributions of amphibians in southern Asia and adjacent islands. In: W.E. Duellman (ed.), Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians: A Global Perspective, pp. 445-482. John Hopkins University Press.

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: (Accessed: 3 November 2009).

Kaiser, H. and Henderson, R.W. 1994. The conservation status of Lesser Antillean frogs. Herpetological Natural History 2(2): 41-56.

Kenny, J.S. 1969. The Amphibia of Trinidad. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and Other Caribbean Islands 29.

Köhler, G. 2001. Anfibios y Reptiles de Nicaragua. Herpeton, Offenbach, Germany.

La Marca, E. 1992. Catálogo taxonómico, biogeográfico y bibliográfico de las ranas de Venezuela. Cuadernos Geográficos, Universidad de Los Andes 1: 1-197.

Lescure, J. 1976. Contribution a l'étude des amphibiens de Guyane francaise. VI. Liste préliminaire des anoures. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, France, 3 serie 377: 475-524.

Lescure, J. and Marty, C. 2000. Atlas des Amphibiens de Guyane. Patrimoines Naturels, Paris.

Lever, C. 2001. The Cane Toad. The History and Ecology of a Success. Westbury Academic and Scientific.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.

Lorvelec, O., Pascal, M., Pavis, C. and Feldmann, P. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the French West Indies: Inventory, threats and conservation. Applied Herpetology 4: 131-161.

Lynch, J.D. 2006. The amphibian fauna in the Villavicencio region of Eastern Colombia. Caldasia 28(1): 135-155.

Maeda, N. and Matsui, M. 1999. Frogs and Toads of Japan. Revised edition. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan Co., Ltd, Tokyo.

McCranie, J.R. and Wilson, L.D. 2002. The Amphibians of Honduras. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Menzies, J.I. 1996. Unnatural distribution of fauna in the east Malesian region. In: D.J. Kitchener and A. Suyanto (eds), Proceedings of the first International Conference, pp. 31-38. W.A. Museum, Perth.

Mertens, R. 1969. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf der Insel Tobago. Salamandra 5(1-2): 63-70.

Mertens, R. 1972. Herpetofauna tobagana. Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde aus dem Staatlichen Museum fur Naturkunde in Stuttgart 252: 1-11.

Mole, R.R. and Urich, F.W. 1894. A preliminary list of the reptiles and batrachians of the island of Tobago. Journal of the Trinidad Field Naturalists' Club 2(3): 77-90.

Morales, M. 2003. Evaluación ecológica rápida de herpetofauna en el sector sur de la Cordillera del Condor, provincia de Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador. Informes de las Evaluaciones ecologicas rapidas en el sector sur de la Cordillera del Condor, provincia de Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador, pp. 31-62. Fundacion Natura, Informe Tecnico, Quito, Ecuador.

Morales, M., Ortiz, A., Toral, E. and Regalado, J. 2002. Monitoreo del aprovechamiento forestal con especies indicadoras de herpetofauna en el Chocó ecuatoriano, Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Componente de monitoreo biológico, Proyecto SUBIR-CARE. Informe Final Fase III, pp. 104-161. EcoCiencia, Quito, Ecuador.

Moreira, G.R., Gordo, M., Martins, M., Galatti, U. and Oda, W.Y. 1997. Relatório Final da Área Temática Herpetofauna. Macrozoneamento Sócio-Econômico-Ecológico do Estado de Rondônia. Planafloro report, pp. 1-57. Planafloro, Porto Velho.

Murphy, J.C. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of Trinidad and Tobago. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.

Nieto Montes de Oca, A. and Pérez Ramos, E. 1998. Guía de los anfibios y reptiles del estado de Querétaro. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.

Parker, H.W. 1933. A list of the frogs and toads of Trinidad. Tropical Agriculture 10(1): 8-12.

Rivas Fuenmayor, G., Ugueto, G., Rivero, R. and Miralles, A. 2005. The herpetofauna of Isla de Margarita, Venezuela: New records and comments. Caribbean Journal of Science 41(2): 346-351.

Rodríguez, L.O. and Duellman, W.E. 1994. Guide to the frogs of the Iquitos region, Amazonian Peru. Asocacion de Ecologia y Conservacion, Amazon Center for Environmental Education and Research and Natural History Museum, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.

Ron, S.R. 2001. Anfibios de Parque Nacional Yasuní, Amazonía ecuatoriana.[online]. Museo de Zoología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador [Consulta: Abril, 2001), Quito, Ecuador.

Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1988. West Indian amphibians and reptiles: a check-list. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology 74: 1-264.

Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida.

Sengoku, S., Hikida, T., Matsui, M. and Nakaya, K. 1996. The Encyclopedia of Animals in Japan. Volume 5. Amphibians, Reptiles, Chondrichthyes. Heibonsha Limited, Tokyo.

Taylor, E.H. 1922. Additions to the herpetological fauna of the Philippine Islands, II. Philippine Journal of Science 21: 257-303.

Taylor, E.H. 1922. Additions to the herpetological fauna of the Philippine Islands, I. Philippine Journal of Science 21: 161-206.

Taylor, E.H. 1922. Herpetological fauna of Mt. Makiling. The Philippine Agriculturist 5: 127-139.

van Buurt, G. 2006. Conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire. Applied Herpetology 3: 307-321.

Venegas, P.J. 2005. Herpetofauna del Bosque Seco Ecuatorial de Peru: Taxonomía, ecología y biogeografía. Zonas Áridas 9: 9-26.

Young, B., Sedaghatkish, G., Roca, E. and Fuenmayor, Q. 1999. El Estatus de la Conservación de la Herpetofauna de Panamá: Resumen del Primer Taller Internacional sobre la Herpetofauna de Panamá. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia.

Zimmerman, B.L. and Rodrigues, M.T. 1990. Frogs, snakes, and lizards of INPA-WWF Reserves near Manaus, Brasil. In: A.H. Gentry (ed.), Four Neotropical rainforests, pp. 426-454. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Zug, G. and Zug, P. 1979. The marine toad, Bufo marinus: A natural history resumé of native populations. Smithsom. Contr. Zool. 284: 1-58.

Citation: Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, Geoffrey Hammerson, Blair Hedges, Arvin Diesmos, Masafumi Matsui, Jean-Marc Hero, Stephen Richards, Luis Coloma, Santiago Ron, Enrique La Marca, Jerry Hardy, Robert Powell, Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves, Paulino Ponce. 2009. Rhinella marina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T41065A10382424. . Downloaded on 24 April 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided