|Scientific Name:||Litoria olongburensis|
|Species Authority:||Liem and Ingram, 1977|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,iv)+2ab(ii,iii,iv) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Harry Hines, David Newell, Ed Meyer, Jean-Marc Hero, John Clarke|
|Reviewer(s):||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)|
Listed as Vulnerable because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in its Area of Occupancy, in the extent and quality of its forest habitat, and in the number of locations and subpopulations.
|Range Description:||This species is distributed from Lake Woongeel, Fraser Island, south to near Woolgoolga including Bribie, Moreton and Stradbroke Island, south-east Queensland, Australia (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no information on population size, structure or dynamics (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). The species exhibits genetic structuring on a north-south gradient (James 1996). Populations in northern New South Wales, North Stradbroke Island, Moreton Island and Cooloola-Fraser are each genetically different and significantly divergent from each other, and should be considered demographically independent due to their insular nature (James 1996).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits coastal sand plains and dunes of "the wallum" (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). Vegetation types typical of these environments include heath land, Melaleuca swamp, sedge land and Banksia woodland (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). It is associated with low pH waters characteristic of wallum environments, usually found in sedge swamps, and less commonly in coastal lakes and creek environs (Liem and Ingram 1977; James 1996; Ehmann 1997). During wet periods these swamps are heavily inundated and the species can be found clinging to emergent vegetation (grasses, reeds and Bungwall Fern; E. Meyers pers. comm.). During dry periods individuals may be found at the base of sedges, grass clumps and/or Bungwall Fern in the same swamps (E. Meyer pers. comm.). Ingram and Corben (1975) termed this species an ‘acid’ frog as it is confined to sandy heaths and their acidic water. Non-breeding habitat is not known. Limited information is available on the breeding biology of the species. Ehmann (1997) recorded males calling in spring, summer and early autumn at night and by day when swamps were rising or ample water was available. It mainly breeds following heavy rain in perched swamps, amidst sedges, grasses and/or Bungwell Fern (Blechnum indicum) in still water 0.5-1.5m deep (E. Meyer pers. comm.). The wallum waters in which the species breeds are typically heavily tanin-stained, highly acidic and generally dilute (E. Meyer pers. comm.). Eggs are attached to grasses and sedges and larvae are nektonic in form and dwell amongst reeds and grasses in water 0.5-1.5m deep (E. Meyer pers. comm.). Fish are largely absent from habitat occupied by the species (E. Meyer pers. comm.).|
|Major Threat(s):||Populations appear to be relatively stable in protected habitat; however, this species is at risk from continuing loss of habitat through clearing for agriculture, pine plantations, housing and infrastructure such as canal development, drainage projects and transport corridors (Ingram and McDonald 1993; Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). Melaleuca forest and heathland are particularly threatened and have been extensively cleared since 1974 (Catterall and Kingston 1993) suggesting an extensive loss of habitat. Other threats include habitat degradation through changes in hydrological regimes, increased nutrients or sediments, weed invasion, inappropriate fire management, competition from invading frog species and predation from introduced fish (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). Weed invasion is a potentially threatening process (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). Competition from invading frog species and predation from introduced fish (i.e., Gambusia holbrooki) have been identified as potentially threatening processes (Ehmann 1997; Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999) but further research is required.|
|Conservation Actions:||The range of the species includes several protected areas.|
Catterall, C.P. and Kingston, M. 1993. Remnant Bushland of South East Queensland in the 1990’s: Its Distribution, Loss, Ecological Consequences and Future Prospects. Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
Ehmann, H. 1997. 21. Wallum Sedgefrog, Litoria olongburensis. In: Ehmann, H. (ed.), Threatened Frogs of New South Wales: Habitats, Status and Conservation, pp. 182-187. Frog and Tadpole Study Group of New South Wales, Sydney South, Australia.
Hines, H., Mahony, M. and McDonald, K. 1999. An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A. (ed.), Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, Environment Australia.
Ingram, G.J. and Corben, C.J. 1975. The frog fauna of Stradbroke Island, with comments on the 'acid' frogs of the Wallum. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland: 49-54.
Ingram, G.J. and McDonald, K.R. 1993. An update on the decline of Queenslands frogs. In: Lunney, D. and Ayers, D. (eds), Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, pp. 297-303. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
James, C. 1996. Conservation genetics of island and mainland populations of the sedge frogs Litoria cooloolensis and Litoria olongburensis. Unpublished final report to Queensland Department of Zoology and Centre for Conservation.
Liem, D.S and Ingram, G.J. 1977. Two new species of frogs (Anura: Myobatrachidae, Pelodryadidaoe) from Queensland and New South Wales. Victorian Naturalist: 255-262.
Tyler, M.J. 1997. The Action Plan for Australian Frogs. Wildlife Australia, Canberra.
|Citation:||Harry Hines, David Newell, Ed Meyer, Jean-Marc Hero, John Clarke 2004. Litoria olongburensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 September 2014.|
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