|Scientific Name:||Mammillaria schwarzii Shurly|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Hunt, D., Taylor, N. and Charles, G. (compilers and editors). 2006. The New Cactus Lexicon. dh Books, Milborne Port, UK.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Accepted as a valid species by Anderson (2001), Hunt (1999) and Pilbeam (1999).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iv,v)c(iv) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Sánchez , E., Fitz Maurice, W.A., Fitz Maurice, B & Bárcenas Luna, R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Superina, M. & Goettsch, B.K.|
Mammillaria schwarzii is considered Critically Endangered due to a very restricted range (extent of occurrence less than 100km2), it is only found in one location, and there is a continuing decline in the number of subpopulations and mature individuals due to extensive overcollecting, and there are extreme fluctuations in the number of mature individuals. In terms of cactus, this species has among the highest rates of natural population fluctuation, which makes it susceptible to rapid declines.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The species is endemic to Guanajuato, Mexico. It grows near San Felipe on a steep volcanic rock face about 100 m (plan view) by 4 km long. The extent of occurrence is less than 100 km2. It grows at altitudes between 2,150 and 2,400 m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Current estimated population size is less than 1,000 individuals.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This cactus grows on steep volcanic rock (igneous) in semi-desert (matorral) and oak forest.|
|Use and Trade:||This cactus is collected in the wild to be used as an ornamental, which represents an important threat to the species.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is highly threatened by illegal collecting. The locality is a standard stop for cactus tour groups from Europe and is now well-known to both commercial and amateur collectors.|
The species is listed on CITES Appendix II, but enforcement of the law in countries of destination is needed. This species has been widely propagated worldwide for 40 years. There is a strong need for site level protection to prevent collectors from removing individuals from the wild. In addition there is a strong need to monitor levels of population decline due to illegal harvesting.
This species is legally protected in Mexico by the national list of species at risk of extinction, NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, where it is listed under category “subject to special protection” (Pr; SEMARNAT 2010).
|Errata reason:||Under the bibliography for this species, two references were missing pagination numbers which have now been added.|
Anderson, E.F. 2001. The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland.
Fitz Maurice, W.A. 1988. Fieldnotes: The rediscovery of Mammillari schwarzii. Cactus and Succulent Journal (US) 60(2): 72-75
Fitz Maurice, W.A. and B. 1994a. Mammillaria schwarzii revisited. Cactus and Succulent Journal (US) 66(3): 107-109
Fitz Maurice, W.A. and B. 1994b. Der Fall Mammillaria schwarzii. Schumannia 1: 36-38.
Hunt, D. 1999. CITES Cactaceae Checklist, 2nd ed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and International Organization for Succulent Plant Study (IOS).
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).
Pilbeam, J. 1999. Mammillaria. Cirio Publishing Services, Southampton.
SEMARNAT. 2010. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, Protección ambiental-Especies nativas de México de flora y fauna silvestres-Categorías de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio-Lista de especies en riesgo. Diario Oficial de la Federación.
Shurly, E. 1949. Mammillaria schwarzii. Cactus and Succulent Journal of Great Britain 11: 17.
|Citation:||Sánchez , E., Fitz Maurice, W.A., Fitz Maurice, B & Bárcenas Luna, R. 2013. Mammillaria schwarzii (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T40851A113549562.Downloaded on 20 January 2018.|
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