Mammillaria marcosii 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Caryophyllales Cactaceae

Scientific Name: Mammillaria marcosii
Species Authority: W.A.Fitz Maurice, B.Fitz Maurice & Glass
Common Name(s):
Spanish Biznaguita
Taxonomic Source(s): Hunt, D., Taylor, N. and Charles, G. (compilers and editors). 2006. The New Cactus Lexicon. dh Books, Milborne Port, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Accepted as a valid species by Anderson (2001) and Pilbeam (1999 and provisionally by Hunt (1999).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2d+3d; B1ab(v)+2ab(v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2009-11-19
Assessor(s): Fitz Maurice, B, Fitz Maurice, W.A., Guadalupe Martínez, J. & Sánchez , E.
Reviewer(s): Superina, M. & Goettsch, B.K.
Mammillaria marcosii is considered to be Critically Endangered due to its very small range, its occurrence in a single location, a small population size, and rapid and ongoing decline in population size estimated to be greater than 80% over the next 3 generations (generation length is estimated at 5–10 years). Furthermore, it does not occur in any protected area. The population consists of fewer than 150 plants, which are found in a single small area of less than 10 km². Since this species was discovered in 1996 (Fitz Maurice et al. 1997), the population has diminished by an estimated 90% due to illegal collecting.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2002 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Guanajuato, Mexico, where it is found east of Xichú and grows over a range of less than 10 km². It is found at an altitude around 1,200 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico (Guanajuato)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 9
Number of Locations: 1
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1200
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1200
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The current population is estimated to be less than 150 individuals. Since this species was discovered in 1996 (Fitz Maurice et al. 1997), the population has diminished by an estimated 90% due to illegal collecting.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 150 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found on steeply sloping volcanic rocky terrain in semi-desert (submontane matorral). Generation length is 5-10 years.
Systems: Terrestrial
Generation Length (years): 5-10

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is illegally collected for use as an ornamental. It is cultivated commercially for international trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by extensive illegal overcollecting. The habitat is now well known to both commercial and amateur collectors.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix II, but enforcement of the laws in the countries of destination is needed. Efforts to protect this species from illegal collecting are urgently needed to stop the rapid decline of the wild population. It does not occur in any protected area.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Anderson, E.F. 2001. The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland.

Fitz Maurice, W. A., Fitz Maurice, B. and Glass, C. 1997. A new species of Mammillaria (M. marcosii), Series Stylothelae, from northwestern Guanajuato, Mexico. Cactus and Succulent Journal (US) 69(1): 10-?.

Fitz Maurice, W. A., Fitz Maurice, B. and Glass, C. 1997. Repercussions - Mammillaria marcosii. Mammillaria Society Journal 37(4): ?.

Hunt, D. 1999. CITES Cactaceae Checklist, 2nd ed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and International Organization for Succulent Plant Study (IOS).

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Pilbeam, J. 1999. Mammillaria. Cirio Publishing Services, Southampton.

Citation: Fitz Maurice, B, Fitz Maurice, W.A., Guadalupe Martínez, J. & Sánchez , E. 2013. Mammillaria marcosii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T40840A2936060. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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