|Scientific Name:||Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides|
|Species Authority:||(Whitley, 1934)|
Carcharhinus amblyrhinchoides (Whitley, 1934) [orth. error]
Gillisqualus amblyrhynchoides Whitley, 1934
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Musick, J.A. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
This assessment is based on the information published in the 2005 shark status survey (Fowler et al. 2005).
The Graceful Shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides) is a little-studied, coastal Indo-West Pacific species that is caught in commercial fisheries, but not as a targeted species. There is no evidence that this species faces a high extinction risk under the IUCN Criteria, but it has been impacted by fishing. Further research is required on its life history to aid in the assessment of this species.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in continental shelf waters of the tropical Indo-West Pacific, including Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Viet Nam, China, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka and the Gulf of Aden (Compagno 1984, Parry-Jones 1996). Distribution records from this region are not continuous. However, given its relatively low abundance, and morphological similarity to other more abundant species of Carcharhinus, its distribution is likely to be continuous through southern Asia.|
Native:Australia; China; India; Indonesia; Philippines; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is found on continental and insular shelves.
Information on the ecology and life history of the Graceful Shark is scant. The only available data are from the waters of northern Australia. The largest recorded size for this species is 167 cm from the Gulf of Thailand (Garrick 1982), while the largest size from Australian waters is 162 cm (Stevens and McLoughlin 1991). Males and females mature at 110?115 cm and probably mate each year. Litter size ranges from 1?9 pups, with a mean of three and the size at birth is 50?60 cm (Last and Stevens 1994). Mating probably occurs in February and ovulation in March or April. The gestation period is 9?10 months with parturition occurring in January and February (Stevens and McLoughlin 1991).
The Graceful Shark's diet is composed mostly of bony fishes. Stevens and McLoughlin (1991) reported fish from 91% of specimens with food in the stomach, while crustaceans occurred in 6% and cephalopods in 4%. In a study of predatory fish around Groote Eylandt in Australia?s Gulf of Carpentaria, Brewer et al. (1995) reported that 88.5% of specimens with food in the stomach had consumed fish, 1.3% crabs and 8.5% cephalopods. Over 60% of the fish eaten were from the family Carangidae.
This shark is caught regularly in gillnet and longline fisheries throughout its range. In northern Australia, Lyle and Timms (1984) reported that in gillnets C. amblyrhynchoides made up 1.5% of the shark catch by numbers and 2.7% by weight. Lyle and Griffin (1987) reported that in longline catches in northern Australia it comprised 0.2% of the shark catch by number and 0.6% by weight. Current levels of the catch of sharks in northern Australia are low. However, catch levels during the 1970s and 1980s were considerably higher when foreign gillnet vessels operated in the fishery. Foreign vessels caught up to 17,000 t of sharks annually during this period (Bentley 1996), but ceased fishing in Australian waters in 1986 when the length of gillnets was restricted.
Records of C. amblyrhynchoides catches in other countries are scant. Parry-Jones (1996) reported landings in China, and Keong (1996) reported their occurrence in fish markets in Thailand. Catches are probably also taken by commercial fisheries in India and Sri Lanka (Compagno 1984b). The Graceful Shark is exploited for its flesh and fins. There is no information available on the impact of fishing on C. amblyrhynchoides stocks.
|Conservation Actions:||Currently there are no conservation or management measures targeted at this species. In northern Australia shark fisheries are regulated limiting the exploitation of this species.|
Bentley, N. 1996. Australian overview. The World Trade in Sharks: a Compendium of TRAFFIC?s regional studies. Volume II, pp. 661?749. TRAFFIC Network, Cambridge, UK.
Brewer, D.T., Blaber, S.J.M., Salini, J.P. and Farmer, M.J. 1995. Feeding ecology of predatory fishes from Groote Eylandrt in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, with special reference to predation on penaeid prawns. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 40: 577?600.
Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 125, vol. 4.
Compagno, L.J.V. and Roberts, T.R. 1984. Dasyatidae. In: J. Daget, J.P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds), Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa, pp. 4?5. Museum Royal de L?Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium/Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Bonde, France, 1.
Fowler, S.L., Cavanagh, R.D., Camhi, M., Burgess, G.H., Cailliet, G.M., Fordham, S.V., Simpfendorfer, C.A. and Musick, J.A. (comps and eds). 2005. Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes. Status Survey. pp. x + 461. IUCN/SSC Shark Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Garrick, J.A.F. 1982. Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus. NOAA Technical Report NMFS.
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).
IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at: http://www.iucnssg.org/.
Keong, C.H. 1996. Shark fisheries and trade in sharks and shark products in Southeast Asia. The World Trade in Sharks: a Compendium of TRAFFIC?s regional studies. Volume II, pp. 807?945. TRAFFIC Network, Cambridge, UK.
Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia.
Lyle, J.M. and Griffin, P.J. 1987. Evaluation of the suitability of longlining for shark in northern Australian waters. Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries, Fishery Report.
Lyle, J.M. and Timms, G.J. 1984. North Australia?s multispecies shark fishery. Exploratory fishing survey of shark and other pelagic fish resources found in Northern Territory inshore waters. Northern Territory Department of Primary Production, Fishery Report.
Parry-Jones, R. 1996. TRAFFIC report on shark fisheries and trade in the People?s Republic of China. In: M.J. Phipps (compiler). TRAFFIC report on shark fisheries and trade in the East Asian Region. The world trade in sharks: a compendium of TRAFFIC?s regional studies. Vol. 1. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge
Stevens, J.D. and McLoughlin, K.J. 1991. Distribution, size and sex composition, reproductive biology and diet of sharks from northern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 42:151-199.
|Citation:||Simpfendorfer, C. 2009. Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 May 2013.|
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