|Scientific Name:||Hippocampus subelongatus|
|Species Authority:||Castelnau, 1873|
Hippocampus angustus Günther, 1870
|Taxonomic Notes:||The 1996 and 2000 IUCN Red Lists included H. angustus. This was a misidentification and should actually have referred to H. subelongatus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Lafrance, P., Lourie, S., Marsden, D. & Vincent, A.C.J. (Syngnathid Red List Authority)|
H. subelongatus is collected for the aquarium trade, but the effects of this collection on the persistence of the population is debated. Glenn Moore (cited in Lourie et al. 1999) reported that numbers recently declined substantially in the Swan River near Perth due to over-collecting for aquaria. However, Kuiter (2000) believes that the number of specimens collected for the aquarium trade is "minuscule compared to the wild population" and that fluctuation in the Swan River is due to seasonal conditions and not to collecting.
Recent research on H. subelongatus focuses mainly on reproductive behaviour (Jones et al. 1998, Kvarnemo et al. 2000) and aquaculture (Payne and Rippingale 2000). Appropriate data on distribution and abundance in the wild, and on fishing mortality, are not yet available. Further research is needed in order to evaluate the status of the species.
In addition to exploitation for the aquarium trade, habitat degeneration is a potential threat to the species.
|Range Description:||H. subelongatus is known from Freemantle, Perth, Swan River, and Houtman Abrolhos Islands in Western Australia (Lourie et al. 1999).|
Native:Australia (Western Australia)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Data are not currently available on wild populations.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The species is found on the edge of rocky areas, muddy bottoms, and areas of high sediment load; jetty piles and mooring; and it is often associated with sponges or sea squirts or attached to man-made objects. They have been reported to occur at depths of 1 to 25 m and to move to deeper waters in winter (Lourie et al. 1999).
This species may be particularly susceptible to decline. All seahorse species have vital parental care and many species studied to date have high site fidelity (Perante et al. 2002, Vincent et al. in review), highly structured social behaviour (Vincent and Sadler 1995), and relatively sparse distributions (Lourie et al. 1999). The importance of life history parameters in determining response to exploitation has been demonstrated for a number of species (Jennings et al. 1998).
|Major Threat(s):||H. subelongatus is collected for the aquarium trade, but the effects of this collection on the persistence of populations is debated. In addition to exploitation for the aquarium trade, habitat degeneration is a potential threat to the species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species was moved under the Australian Wildlife Protection Act in 1998. Further research on this species is needed. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.|
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 8 October 2002.
Jennings, S., Reynolds, J.D. and Mills, S.C. 1998. Life history correlates of responses to fisheries exploitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 265:333-339.
Jones, A.G., Kvarnemo, C., Moore, G.I., Simmons, L.W. and Avise, J.C. 1998. Microsatellite evidence for monogamy and sex-biased recombination in the Western Australian seahorse Hippocampus angustus. Molecular Ecology 7:1497-1505.
Kuiter, R.H. 2000a. Seahorses, Pipefishes and their Relatives. A Comprehensive Guide to Syngnathiformes. TMC Publishing, Chorleywood, UK.
Kvarnemo, C., Moore, G.I., Jones, A.G., Nelson, W.S. and Avise, J.C. 2000. Monogamous pair bonds and mate switching in the Western Australian seahorse Hippocampus subelongatus. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13:882-888.
Lourie, S.A., Vincent, A.C.J. and Hall, H.J. 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London, U.K.
Payne, M.F. and Rippingale, R.J. 2000. Rearing West Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, juveniles on copepod nauplii and enriched Artemia. Aquaculture 188:353-361.
Perante, N.C., Pajaro, M.G., Meeuwig, J.J. and Vincent, A.C.J. 2002. Biology of a seahorse species Hippocampus comes in the central Philippines. Accepted by Journal of Fish Biology. 2001.
Vincent, A.C.J. and Sadler, L.M. 1995. Faithful pair bonds in wild seahorses, Hippocampus whitei. Animal Behaviour 50: 1557-1569.
Vincent, A.C.J., Evans, K.L., and Marsden, A.D. 2005. Home range behaviour of the monogamous Australian seahorse, Hippocampus whitei. Environmental Biology of Fishes 72: 1–12.
|Citation:||Project Seahorse 2002. Hippocampus subelongatus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 May 2013.|
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