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Syngnathoides biaculeatus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII SYNGNATHIFORMES SYNGNATHIDAE

Scientific Name: Syngnathoides biaculeatus
Species Authority: (Bloch, 1785)
Common Name(s):
English Alligator Pipefish, Double-ended Pipefish, Spiraltail Pipefish
Synonym(s):
Sygnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785) [orth. error]
Taxonomic Notes:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Bartnik, S., Morgan, Pogonoski, J., Pollard, D. & Paxton, J.
Reviewer(s): Martin-Smith, K. & Caldwell, I. (Syngnathid Red List Authority)
Justification:
This species meets the criteria for a Data Deficient listing. The information available for Syngnathoides biaculeatus includes distribution and life history parameters such as growth, reproduction, and development data (Takahashi et al. 2003, Dhanya et al. 2005) but excludes data on population dynamics. Syngnathoides biaculeatus is a syngnathid that has a long history of use in traditional medicine (Shi et al. 1993, Pogonoski et al. 2002). While there is abundant information on the occurrence of this species, information on catch and trade levels is scarce. A listing of Data Deficient does not imply that the taxon is not threatened but that not enough information exists to quantify or even estimate extinction risk. Application of the category Data Deficient is a call for more research and scrutiny to be directed at this species. Until there exists more information on the main exploitation method for S. biaculeatus, (as it is not known if there are directed fisheries for the species or if individuals are caught only as bycatch), the distribution of any fisheries, and the volume of individuals that are caught and traded, the impact of the trade for traditional medicines cannot be assessed with rigour.
History:
1996 Data Deficient

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Syngnathoides biaculeatus has a wide geographic range. It has been recorded in surveys and taxonomic overviews from the Red Sea and the African east coast to Knysna, South Africa (Dawson 1985, Dawson 1986).  It is also found in the Indo-Pacific from the east coast of India, throughout the South China Sea and has been recorded as far northward as northern Japan. It has been found in three states and one territory in Australia: Western Australia, the Northern Territory, Queensland, and New South Wales (Paxton et al. 1989). It has been recorded near the islands of Micronesia and Samoa (Randall et al. 1997).

 

Australian Marine Protected Areas in Which Has Been Recorded (Pogonoski et al. 2002): In Australia, S. biaculeatus is found in the following marine protected areas: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve, off northern Western Australia, Cartier Island Marine Protected Area, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Queensland, and CoburgMarinePark, in the Northern Territory (Pogonoski et al. 2002).

 

Museum Records Worldwide: in Australia, there are 106 specimens (standard length 100-288 mm), collected from a depth range of 0 to 5 m, ranging in geographical distribution from the Timor Sea, Northern Territory south-eastwards to Batemans Bay (35°44’S), New South Wales on the east coast of Australia, and from Ashmore Reef (12°13’S) southwards to Geraldton (28°46’S) on the west coast of Australia. Outside Australia there are specimens from the Andaman Islands, India, Malay Archipelago, Guam, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Specimens were collected between circa 1879 and 1998 (Pogonoski et al. 2002).

 

Other museum records are available from FishBase and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) and include specimens collected from Suva Harbor in Fiji, Singapore, Kenya, and Yemen (Froese and Pauly 2007, Ocean Biogeographic Information System 2007). Specimens listed in Fishbase/OBIS have collection dates from 1828 to 2004.
Countries:
Native:
Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia); Egypt; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Japan; Madagascar; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Northern Mariana Islands; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tonga
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

While S. biaculeatus has been reported by many authors in its range, there is no information available to our knowledge about population structure or sizes. Takahashi et al. (2003) (and earlier thesis Takahashi 2000) report on index of population size (CPUE) and seasonal changes in Moreton Bay, Queensland. Work in Bootless Bay, PNG (Barrows, Baine and Martin-Smith unpub. data) shows they are very common (found at all seagrass sites) in moderate abundance (2-6 individuals/100 m²) with no systematic changes across the year.

Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Habitat

Syngnathoides biaculeatus is generally found in seagrass beds or algal flats in the protected shallow waters of lagoons and bays, its colouring matching plants well (Randall et al. 1997). Adults are found in large Sargassum rafts (Kuiter 1996) and juveniles are occasionally found among debris floating offshore (Dawson 1985). In Queensland, Australia, this species is found in estuaries, usually in association with Zostera seagrass, to which it anchors itself by means of its prehensile tail (Grant 1978).

 

Behaviour and Biology

Syngnathoides biaculeatus has a breeding season of between October and April in Moreton Bay, Australia (Takahashi et al. 2003) but year-round in BootlessBay, PNG (Barrows et al. unpub). Males mature and can begin brooding at a length of about 180 mm (Dawson, 1985; Takahashi et al. 2003) although smaller mature males have been observed (Barrows et al., unpub). Brood size for males was comparable to that of other syngnathids, at 60-200 eggs (Takahashi et al. 2003) although ongoing research suggests that larger broods can occur (Barrows et al., unpub). The eggs can vary in colour (they can be clear, white, brown, or green) as they develop and are carried on the abdomen of the male until they hatch (Grant 1978, Takahashi 2000).

 

Syngnathoides biaculeatus is a poor swimmer, propelling itself by the winnowing action of the dorsal and pectoral fins (Pogonoski et al. 2002). Some individuals have been observed near the surface of the water or jumping out of the water entirely (Dawson 1986, Kuiter 1996). Prey items include shrimps, fish, and amphipods (Nakamura et al. 2003) as well as other tiny crustaceans (Allen and Swainston 1992).

 

Size

Syngnathoides biaculeatus has been reported to achieve a maximum length of between 260 to 300 mm (Kuiter 1996, Takahashi et al. 2003) and displays significant size dimorphism, with males growing bigger than females (Takahashi et al. 2003). Although growth of S. biaculeatus has been reported as rapid over a life span of less than two years (Takahashi et al. 2003), more recent studies suggest that growth rates are slower and life spans can reach three years (Barrows et al. unpub data).

Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are three ways that S. biaculeatus is known to be used. First, wild specimens have been dried and used in the Chinese traditional medicine trade for at least 600 years (Shi et al. 1993). Second, individuals are kept and reared in public aquariums (Lange 1989, Koldewey 2005). Third, specimens are offered for sale to home/hobby aquarium owners through aquarium retailers (S. Bartnik, pers. obs.). It is not known from where specimens that supply either the traditional medicine trade or the aquarium trade originate.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

This species has a history of use in the Chinese traditional medicine trade. Known as Hailong (Shi et al. 1993), it has been observed for sale in traditional medicine stores in Sydney, Australia (C. Woodfield, pers. comm., Martin-Smith and Vincent 2006). The origins of the specimens that enter the medicine trade have not been established, although it is likely there are from wild populations as S. biaculeatus rearing in aquaculture facilities has not been reported. Live specimens are also sold as pets for home aquariums and this trade could threaten wild populations if individuals are being removed from the wild to fulfill the home aquarium industry demand (S. Bartnik, pers. obs).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species has been identified or protected by the following conservation actions.
  • In Australia all syngnathids became subject to the export controls of the Commonwealth Wildlife Protection (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1982 on 1 January 1998 (Pogonoski et al. 2002).
  • In Australia, all syngnathids and solenostomids are listed as marine species under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation  (EPBC) Act 1999 (Pogonoski et al. 2002).
  • This species is listed as Data Deficient by the Australian Society for Fish Biology (ASFB) in its 2001 Conservation Status of Australian Fishes document, the most recent AFSB listing available (ASFB 2007).

Bibliography [top]

Allen, G.R. and Swainston, R. 1992. Reef Fishes of New Guinea - A Field Guide for Divers, Anglers and Naturalists. Publication no. 8. Christensen Research Institute, Madang.

Australian Society for Fish Biology (ASFB). 2007. Conservation Status of Australian Fishes – 2001. Available at: http://www.asfb.org.au/research/tscr/tf_constat2001.htm#TopOfPage. (Accessed: 25 August 2007).

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Dawson, C.E. 1985. Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA.

Dawson, C.E. 1986. Syngnathidae. In: M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds), Smith's sea fishes, pp. 445-458. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Dhanya, S., Rajagopal, S., Khan, S.A.and Balasubramanian, T. 2005. Embryonic development in alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785). Current Science (Bangalore) 88: 178-181.

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Fricke, R. 1999. Fishes of the Mascarene Islands (Réunion, Mauritius, Rodriguez): an annotated checklist, with descriptions of new species. Theses Zoology, Königstein, Germany.

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Koldewey, H. 2005. Syngnathid Husbandry in Public Aquariums. Project Seahorse, Zoological Society of London and John G. Shedd Aquarium. (http://www.projectseahorse.org/pubs/Syngnathid_Husbandry_Manual2005.pdf)

Kuiter, R.H. 1992. Tropical reef-fishes of the western Pacific Indonesia and adjacent waters. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Kuiter, R.H. 1996. Guide to sea fishes of Australia. A comprehensive reference for divers and fishermen. New Holland, London, UK.

Lange, J. 1989. The breeding of different coral fishes in the Zoo Aquarium Berlin. Bulletin L'Institute Oceanography (Monaco) 5(special issue): 219-222.

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Myers, R.F. 1999. Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam.

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Randall, J.E., Williams, J.T., Smith, D.G., Kulbicki, M., Tham, G.M., Labrosse, P., Kronen, M., Clua, E. and Mann, B.S. 2003. Checklist of the shore and epipelagic fishes of Tonga. Atoll Research Bulletin 502: 1-37.

Shao, K.-T., Shen, S.-C., Chiu, T.-S. and Tzeng, C.-S. 1992. Distribution and database of fishes in Taiwan. In: C.-Y. Peng (ed.), Collections of research studies on Survey of Taiwan biological resources and information management. Vol. 2, pp. 173-206. Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica. [In Chinese].

Shi, R., Zhang, Y. and Wang, Z. 1993. Experimental studies on Hailong extracts from Syngnathoides biaculatus. 1. The influences of Hailong extracts on human PBL proliferation and human tumour cell lines. Chin. J. Mar. Drugs/Zhongguo Haiyang Yaowu 12(2): 4-7.

Smith, J.L.B. 1969. Fishes of Inhaca. In: Macnae, W. and Kalk, M. (eds), A natural history of Inhaca Island, Moçambique, pp. 131-136. Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg, South Africa.

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Takahashi, E. 2000. Life history characteristics of double ended pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch), in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. M.Phil. thesis. School of Environmental and Applied Sciences, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

Takahashi, E., Connolly, R.M. and Lee, S.Y. 2003. Growth and reproduction of double-ended pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus, in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Environ. Biol. Fish 67: 23-33.

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Citation: Bartnik, S., Morgan, Pogonoski, J., Pollard, D. & Paxton, J. 2008. Syngnathoides biaculeatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 November 2014.
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