|Scientific Name:||Papio anubis|
|Species Authority:||(Lesson, 1827)|
Papio anubis (Pucheran & Schimper, 1856) subspecies doguera
Papio anubis Elliot, 1907 subspecies furax
Papio anubis Matschie, 1898 subspecies heuglini
Papio anubis Matschie, 1897 subspecies neumanni
Papio anubis Elliot, 1909 subspecies tessellatus
Papio anubis Dekeyser & Derivot, 1960 subspecies tibestianus
Papio hamadryas subspecies anubis (Lesson, 1827)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Previously treated as a subspecies of Papio hamadryas, but now generally raised to specific level (Kingdon 1997; Groves 2001, 2005; Grubb et al. 2003).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Kingdon, J., Butynski, T.M. & De Jong, Y.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern as this species is very widespread and abundant and although persecuted as a crop raider there are no major threats believed to be resulting in a range-wide population decline.
|Range Description:||This is the most extensively distributed of the baboons, ranging throughout the Sahelian woodland and forest-mosaic habitats from southern Mauritania and Mali to the Sudan and southwards to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania. Outlying populations inhabit the Tibesti and Air massifs in the Sahara. In East Africa, the distribution is actively changing. Wherever the range of this species encounters that of other species there are hybrid zones and a strong implication that it is a species which is still in a phase of active expansion. For example, it forms a narrow hybrid zone with P. hamadryas below the Awash Falls and elsewhere in northern Ethiopia, and hybridizes with P. cynocephalus in the eastern part of Tsavo and Amboseli National Parks in Kenya. There is a broad clinal hybrid zone of P. anubis x P. cynocephalus between Laikipia District, just to the north-east and east of Mt. Kenya, and the Lower Tana River, Kenya coast. Baboons in this >200-km wide region are intermediate and cannot be readily allocated to either P. anubis or P. cynocephalus (baboons become increasingly “yellow-like” in their phenotypes towards the Kenya Coast; T. Butynski and Y. de Jong pers. comm.). Papio anubis x P. cynocephalus are found in the Pare and Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, and elsewhere sporadically along a north-east/south-west trending line across the region. It is possible that this species has caused the ranges of neighbouring, smaller baboon species to contract. Sympatric with Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Erythrocebus patas and Cercopithecus mitis (T. Butynski and Y. de Jong pers. comm.). Ranges to 2,500 m asl (T. Butynski and Y. de Jong pers. comm.).|
Native:Benin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Ghana; Guinea; Kenya; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The Olive Baboon is widespread and locally common in spite of vigorous trapping, shooting, and poisoning campaigns.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Inhabits Sahelian woodland and forest-mosaic habitats; able to persist in secondary and/or highly fragmented vegetation, including cultivated areas. This species is an omnivorous opportunist, and its diet varies according to region, season, and even the time of day. In open areas, it primarily feed on grasses, while in forests the principal food is fruits. Resin or gum act as buffers in dry seasons and locusts provide the occasional glut. As a result of this variable feeding strategy, there are differences in social organization and behaviour. Males may form associations called 'cabals' which can show co-operation or have elements of hierarchy.|
|Major Threat(s):||In the long term, the Olive Baboon is probably excluded from closed forests by competition and disease. Is actively persecuted in places as a pest species.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is listed under Appendix II of CITES, and as Vermin under the African Convention. Found in a number of protected areas, including Tsavo and Lake Manyara National Parks. The isolated subpopulations on Saharan massifs merit further research.|
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Grubb, P., Butynski, T. M., Oates, J. F., Bearder, S. K., Disotell, T. R., Groves, C. P. and Struhsaker, T. T. 2003. Assessment of the Diversity of African Primates. International Journal of Primatology 24(6): 1301-1357.
Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press Natural World, San Diego, California, USA.
|Citation:||Kingdon, J., Butynski, T.M. & De Jong, Y. 2008. Papio anubis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 December 2013.|
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