Catopuma temminckii 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae

Scientific Name: Catopuma temminckii
Species Authority: (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)
Common Name(s):
English Asiatic Golden Cat, Temminck's Cat, Golden Cat
French Chat de Temminck, Chat doré d'Asie
Spanish Gato Dorado Asiático
Synonym(s):
Felis temminckii Vigors & Horsfield, 1827
Pardofelis temminckii (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)
Taxonomic Source(s): Sicuro, F.L. and Oliveira, L.F.B. 2011. Skull morphology and functionality of extant Felidae (Mammalia: Carnivora): a phylogenetic and evolutionary perspective. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 414–462.
Taxonomic Notes: Taxonomy is currently under review by the IUCN SSC Cat Specialist Group. The Asiatic Golden Cat resembles the African Golden Cat, but on the basis of genetic analysis it was grouped with the Marbled Cat in Pardofelis (Johnson et al. 2006, O'Brien and Johnson 2007). However, an evaluation of skull morphology by Sicuro and Oliveira (2011) revealed that skull structure in Pardofelis is quite different to that of Catopuma. Moreover, Pardofelis has a flexible ankle joint and elongated tail as adaptations to arboreality, which are lacking in Catopuma. Based on these differences, the IUCN SSC Cat Specialist Group retains Asiatic Golden Cat in Catopuma.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2014-04-20
Assessor(s): McCarthy, J., Dahal, S., Dhendup, T., Gray, T.N.E., Mukherjee, S., Rahman, H., Riordan, P., Boontua, N. & Wilcox, D.
Reviewer(s): Nowell, K., Hunter, L., Duckworth, J.W., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Lanz, T. & Breitenmoser, U.
Contributor(s): Kawanishi, K., Datta, A., Sanderson, J., Wilting, A., Sunarto, S., Hearn, A. & Ross, J.
Justification:
The Asiatic Golden Cat is assessed as Near Threatened. However, there is a general paucity of data for this species, with no density estimates or population data, making an assessment of the true status of the species difficult. The data that we do have indicate that the species has likely experienced population declines of over 20%, and approaching 30% in recent years due to extensive habitat loss and poaching across their range. This pattern is likely to continue in the future, and indicates that the Asiatic Golden Cat is very close to qualifying for a Vulnerable status under criterion A.

The Asiatic Golden Cat has been documented from twelve countries in Southeast Asia. Yet, despite this fairly wide distribution, its presence in India, Bangladesh and Nepal is limited and patchy (Datta et al. 2008, Khan 2008, Ghimrey and Pal 2009, Bashir et al. 2011, H. Rahman pers. comm.). It is reported infrequently from eastern Cambodia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam, and south China, with records in both China and Viet Nam declining drastically in recent years (Duckworth et al. 1999; Johnson et al. 2007; Gray et al. 2012, 2014; Wilcox et al. 2014; P. Riordan pers. comm.). It has not been recorded in Viet Nam since 2005, and extensive surveys carried out  in Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi and Jiangxi Provinces of China have recorded Asiatic Golden Cat on only three occasions (Wilcox et al. 2014, Beijing Forestry University unpublished data, Chinese State Forestry Administration unpublished data). It is likely to be extirpated from these two countries in the very near future. The Asiatic Golden Cat is distributed more widely throughout Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, but the is thought to be experiencing population declines in these areas as well (Linkie and Ridout 2009, Sunarto 2012, McCarthy 2013, McCarthy et al. 2015, K. Kawanishi pers. comm., S. Dahal pers. comm).

The most significant threats to the Asiatic Golden Cat are thought to be habitat loss and poaching. Although the species has occasionally been recorded from degraded or altered habitats, it is primarily a forest dependent species, and thus is threatened by the significant habitat loss and fragmentation throughout its range (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Holden 2001, Grassman et al. 2005, Choudhury 2007, Wang 2007, McCarthy 2013, McCarthy et al. 2015). Although deforestation rates in Southeast Asia have slowed slightly, they are still among the highest in the world at roughly one million hectares/year between 2000 and 2010 (FAO 2011). Land conversion is also a threat to the Asiatic Golden Cat, and even in countries such as Bhutan, where the species is thought to enjoy a relatively protected status, an increase in hyrdopower projects has the potential to negatively impact the species. Poaching of the species is thought to be increasing in many areas, as it is often targeted for the sale of its pelt and body parts (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Duckworth et al. 1999, Lynam et al. 2006, Khan 2008, Aiyadurai et al. 2010, Pusparini et al. 2014, H. Rahman pers. comm., P. Riordan pers. comm., S. Mukherjee pers. comm., T. Gray pers. comm., S. Dahal pers. comm., A. Datta pers. comm., D. Willcox pers. comm.). Increasingly, the species may be targeted as a substitute for Tiger pelts and bones. In Viet Nam, there have been several incidences of confiscated Asiatic Golden Cat pelts that were painted to resemble that of a Tiger (D. Willcox pers. comm.). It is also the victim of indiscriminate snaring and hunting in some areas (Holden 2001, Khan 2008, D. Willcox pers. comm.). Finally, there are indications that the species is increasingly being killed in retribution for preying on livestock (mainly poultry) (Sunquist and Sunquist 2002, McCarthy 2013).

The lack of reliable density estimates severely limit our ability to accurately assess the population status and trend of the species. However, the decrease, or sudden absence, of Asiatic Golden Cat records from many areas, in combination with an apparently increased level of poaching, lead us to believe that the population is declining across its range. More rigorous scientific data for this species is needed, and may provide a strong basis on which to base change in status to Vulnerable.
Previously published Red List assessments:
  • 2008 – Near Threatened (NT)
  • 2002 – Vulnerable (VU)
  • 1996 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
  • 1994 – Indeterminate (I)
  • 1990 – Indeterminate (I)
  • 1988 – Indeterminate (I)
  • 1986 – Indeterminate (I)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Asiatic Golden Cat has been recorded rarely and patchily from the Northeastern states of India (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Sikkim), through eastern Bangladesh (Northeast and the Chittagong Hill Tracts) and eastern Nepal (Datta et al. 2008, Khan 2008, Ghimrey and Pal 2009, Bashir et al. 2011, Lyngdoh et al. 2011, Lalthanpuia et al. 2012, Borah et al. 2013, Velho 2013, H. Rahman pers. comm.). It is reported infrequently from eastern Cambodia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam, and south China, and records in Viet Nam and south China have decreased drastically in recent years, with strong indications that the species may face extirpation there in the next several years (Duckworth et al. 1999; Johnson et al. 2006; Gray et al. 2012, 2014; Wilcox et al. 2014; P. Riordan pers. comm.). It is distributed more widely throughout Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, and Malaysia (Tempa et al. 2013, T. Dhendup pers. comm., K. Kawanishi pers. comm., S. Dahal pers. comm.). It is widely reported from the island of Sumatra, but not present on other Indonesian islands (Ridout and Linkie 2009, Sunarto 2011, McCarthy 2013, McCarthy et al. 2015).

This distribution may be somewhat generous, particularly in China and Viet Nam. In Viet Nam there have been several Asiatic Golden Cat pelts confiscated recently in local markets, however, they are of undetermined origin. A live individual has not been recorded in the country since 2005, despite numerous camera trap studies. It is likely that the species has been extirpated from most of the country due to widespread and indiscriminate snaring. In China, extensive surveys carried out with local protected area and provincial government teams in Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi and Jiangxi provinces have recorded the Asiatic Golden Cat on only three occasions (Beijing Forestry University, unpublished data, Chinese State Forestry Administration, unpublished data). It is likely that the species is, or will soon be, extirpated from large areas of its range in south China as well.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Bangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia (Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Thailand; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Upper elevation limit (metres):3738
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:A lack of density estimates across the range makes it difficult to accurately assess the true population status of the species. Owing to somewhat similar camera trap encounter rates, the Asiatic Golden Cat is thought to have comparable abundances to those of sympatric felids (e.g. Neofelis nebulosa, Neofelis diardi, Pardofelis marmorata). However, some surveys have recorded the Golden Cat more frequently than sympatric felid species, while others have recorded the it less frequently, so their relative abundance likely varies significantly across their range (Holden 2001, Duckworth et al. 2005, Rao et al. 2005, Lynam et al. 2006, Mishra et al. 2006, Bashir et al. 2011, Sunarto 2012, McCarthy 2013, McCarthy et al. 2015). In addition, it is important to consider that the Asiatic Golden Cat is thought to be mainly terrestrial, which may influence the number of camera trap photos recorded in comparison to more arboreal felid species such as Neofelis diardi, Neofelis nebulosa and Pardofelis marmorata.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The Asiatic Golden Cat is primarily found in forested areas, particularly tropical and subtropical moist evergreen forests, mixed evergreen forests, and dry deciduous forests. (Nowell and Jackson 1996, McCarthy 2013, McCarthy et al. 2015). Two radio collared individuals (a male and a female) in Thailand occurred most often in closed forest habitats (Grassman et al. 2005). However, the species has also been recorded from open areas such as shrub or grasslands, or open rocky areas, and from degraded or fragmented forest landscapes (Duckworth et al. 1999, Holden 2001, Grassman et al. 2005, Choudhury 2007, Wang 2007, McCarthy 2013). A radio collared female in Sumatra was frequently recorded outside of a protected area in remnant fragments of forest located between coffee plantations (McCarthy 2013).

Records of the Asiatic Golden Cat have a wide altitudinal variation. The species was documented at elevations up to 3,960 m in the Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve Sikkim, India, at 3,738 m in the Jigme Sigye Wangchuk National Park in Bhutan, at 2,896 m in Trongsa, and at 3,900 m in Wangduephodrang (Wang 2007, Bashir et al. 2011, S. Dahal pers. comm.). However, in some areas it appears to be more common in lowland forests. In Kerinci Seblat National Park in Sumatra, it was only recorded by camera traps at low elevations.

The Asiatic Golden Cat is remarkably polymorphic in its pelage. The most common coat color is golden or red brown, but it may also be dark brown or even grey. Melanistic individuals have been reported and may be predominant in some areas of its range (Holden 2001). There is also a spotted form which is called an “ocelot morph” due to its ocelot-like rosettes. To date, this form has been reported from China (in Sichuan and Tibet) and from Bhutan (Wang 2007). The most distinct features of this cat are the white lines bordered with dark brown to black running across the cheeks, from the nostrils towards the cheeks, at the inner corner of the eyes, and up the crown. The rounded ears have black backs with a grey spot. The chest, abdomen and inner side of the upper legs are white with light speckling. The legs and tail are grey to black at the distal ends. The terminal half of the tail is white on the underside and is often carried with the end curled dorsally. Males are larger than females.

Little is known about the ecology and behaviour of the Asiatic Golden Cat. It was once thought to be primarily nocturnal, however, recent data indicates that it may be more crepuscular or diurnal. Two radio-collared Golden Cats in Thailand’s Phu Khieu National Park showed mainly diurnal and crepuscular activity peaks (Grassman et al. 2005). In addition, most camera trap photographs of Asiatic Golden Cats in the Kerinci Seblat and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Parks in Sumatra were taken during the day (Holden 2001, McCarthy 2013).

The home ranges of two radio collared Golden Cats in Thailand’s Phu Khieu National Park were 33 km² (female) and 48 km² (male) and overlapped in significantly (Grassman et al. 2005).

One confirmed scat contained the remains of Indochinese Ground Squirrel (Grassman et al. 2005). Scats from Sumatra contained rat and muntjac remains, and the stomach contents of a carcass in Thailand's Kaeng Krachan National Park included the remains of a small snake (Grassman 1998).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):6

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): As a forest dependent species, the Asiatic Golden Cat is threatened by habitat loss throughout it's range. Although deforestation rates in Southeast Asia have slowed substantially, they are still among the highest in the world (FAO 2011). An increasing number of hydropower projects in countries such as Bhutan, also have the potential to negatively impact the species. In addition, the species is threatened by increasing levels of illegal hunting and poaching for consumption, and for the sale of pelts and body parts (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Duckworth et al. 1999, Lynam et al. 2006, Khan 2008, H. Rahman pers. comm., P. Riordan pers. comm., S. Mukherjee pers. comm., T. Gray pers. comm., S. Dahal pers. comm.). There is thought to be some level of poaching or hunting of the species in every country across its range. Pelts have been recorded being traded along the Myanmar-Thailand border, and in Sumatra (Duckworth et al. 1999, Pusparini et al. 2014), and skins are reported from several sites in northeast India (Aiyadurai et al. 2010, A. Datta pers. comm.). Poaching pressure is particularly high in China and Viet Nam, where the species may soon face extirpation. In Viet Nam, there is some evidence that the species is increasingly targeted as a substitute for Tiger skins and parts, as Tigers become more difficult to obtain. There have been several incidences of confiscated Golden Cat pelts which were painted to resemble that of a Tiger (D. Willcox pers. comm.). Snaring appears to be on the rise across much of mainland Southeast Asia, and constitutes a major threat to the species D. Willcox pers. comm.). In Bangladesh, several recent specimens indicate that the species is commonly hunted by indigenous peoples in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Conflict with humans due to livestock depredation is also thought to be an issue for the species. Retribution killing of the species in response to chicken depredation was recorded in Sumatra (McCarthy 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Asiatic Golden Cat is listed under Appendix I of CITES (as Catopuma temminckii), and is officially protected over most of its range by national legislation. Legal hunting is prohibited in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Viet Nam, and is regulated in Lao PDR. However, there are indications of increasing illegal hunting and poaching in many range countries. Research on the ecology of this species is essential in order to understand population trends and implement effective conservation strategies.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Suitable  major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Suitable  major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Marginal  
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.1. Small-holder plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.11. Dams (size unknown)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Aiyadurai, A., Singh, N.J. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2010. Wildlife hunting by indigenous tribes: a case study from Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India. Oryx 44(4): 564-572.

Bashir, T., Bhattacharya,T., Poudyal, K. and Sathyakumar, S. 2011. Notable observations on the melanistic Asiatic Gold en cat (Pardofelis temminckii) of Sikkim, India. NeBIO 2(1): 1-4.

Borah, J, Wangchuk D., Swargowari, A., Wangchuk T., Sharma, T., Das D., Rabha, N., Basumatari, A., Kakati, N., Ahmed, M.F., Sharma, A., Sarmah A., Dutta D.K., Lahkar, B., Dorji, T., Brahma, P.K., Ramchiary, L., Tempa, T., Wangdi, Y., Nedup, T., Wangdi, T., Tharchen, L., Dhendup, P., Bhobora, C., Pandav, B. and Vattakaven, J. 2013. Tigers in the Transboundary Manas Conservation Complex: conservation implications across borders. Parks 19(1): 52-62.

Choudhury, A. 2007. Sighting of Asiatic golden cat in the grasslands of Assam's Manas National Park. Cat News 47: 29.

Datta, A., Naniwadekar, R. and Anand, M.O. 2008. Occurrence and conservation status of small carnivores in two protected areas in Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India. Small Carnivore Conservation 39: 1–10.

Duckworth, J.W., Poole, C.M., Tizard, R.J., Walston, J.L. and Timmins, R.J. 2005. The Jungle Cat Felis chaus in Indochina: A threatened population of a widespread and adaptable species. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 1263-1280.

Duckworth, J.W., Salter, R.E. and Khounbline, K. 1999. Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. IUCN, Vientiane, Laos.

FAO. 2011. State of the world's forests. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome.

Ghimrey, Y. and Pal, P. 2009. First camera trap image of Asiatic golden cat in Nepal. Cat News 51: 19.

Grassman Jr., L.I.,Tewes, M.E., Silvy, N.J. and Kreetiyutanont, K. 2005. Ecology of three sympatric felids in a mixed evergreen forest in North-central Thailand. Journal of Mammalogy 86: 29-38.

Grassman, L. 1998. Stomach contents of an Asiatic golden cat. Cat News 28: 20-21.

Gray, T.N.E. 2012. Studying large Mammals with imperfect detection: status and habitat preferences of wild cattle and large carnivores in eastern Cambodia. Biotropica 44(4): 531-536.

Gray, T.N.E., Channa, P., Chanrattanak, P. and Sovanna, P. 2014. The status of jungle cat and sympatric small cats in Cambodia’s Eastern Plains. Cat News 8.

Gray, T.N.E., Rattanak, O.U., Keavuth, H.U.Y., Chanrattana, P.I.N. and Maxwell, A.L. 2012. The status of large mammals in eastern Cambodia: a review of camera trapping data 1999–2007. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 1: 42-55.

Holden, J. 2001. Small cats in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Cat News 35: 11-14.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Jenks, K., Chanteap, P., Damrongchainarong, K., Cutter, P., Cutter, P., Redford, T., Lynam, A., Howard, J., Leimgruber, P. 2011. Using relative abundance indices from camera-trapping to test wildlife conservation hypotheses -- an example from KhaoYai National Park, Thailand. Tropical Conservation Science 4(2): 113-131.

Johnson, W.E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W.J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. and O'Brien, S.J. 2006. The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment. Science 311: 73-77.

Johnson, W.E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W.J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. and O'Brien, S.J. 2006. The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assesstment. Science 311: 73-77.

Khan, M.M.H. 2008. The neglected Asiatic golden cats of Bangladesh. Cat News 48.

Lalthanpuia, Sarmah A., Borah J., Borthakur U. 2012. Brief report on camera trapping exercise in Dampa Tiger Reserve, Mizoram. Technical report by WWF-India .

Lynam, A.J., Round, P. and Brockelman, W.Y. 2006. Status of birds and large mammals of the Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex, Thailand. Biodiversity Research and Training Program and Wildlife Conservation Society, Bangkok, Thailand.

Lyngdoh, S., Selvan, K.M., Gopi, G.V. and Habib, B. 2011. First photographic evidences of two rare cats from Pakke Tiger Reserve, western Arunachal Pradesh. Current Science 101: 1284–1286.

McCarthy, J.L. 2013. Conservation and ecology of four sympatric felid species in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. University of Massachusetts Amherst.

McCarthy, J.L., Wibisonobo, H.T., McCarthy, K.P., Fuller, T.K. and Andayani, N. 2015. Assessing the distribution and habitat use of four felid species in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Global Ecology and Conservation 3: 210-221.

Mishra, C., Madhusudan, M.D. and Datta, A. 2006. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: An assessment of threats and conservation needs. Oryx 40: 29-35.

Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. 1996. Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

O'Brien, S.J. and Johnson, W E. 2007. The evolution of cats. Scientific American July: 68-75.

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Pusparini, W., WIbisono, H.T., Reddy, G.V., Tarmizi, and Bharata, P. 2014. Small and medium sized cats in Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Cat News Special Issue 8: 4-9.

Rao, M., Myint, T., Zaw, T. and Htun, S. 2005. Hunting patterns in tropical forests adjoining the Hkakaborazi National Park, north Myanmar. Oryx 39(3): 292-300.

Ridout M.S. and Linkie M. 2009. Estimating overlap of daily activity patterns from camera trap data. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 14: 322-337.

Sicuro, F.L. and Oliveira, L.F.B. 2011. Skull morphology and functionality of extant Felidae (Mammalia: Carnivora): a phylogenetic and evolutionary perspective. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 414–462.

Sunarto. 2011. Ecology and restoration of Sumatran tigers in forest and plantation landscapes. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Sunquist, M. and Sunquist, F. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press.

Tempa, T., Hebblewhite, M., Mills, L.S., Wangchuk, T.R., Norbu, N., Wangchuk, T., Nidup, T., Dendup, P., Wangchuk, D., Wangdi, Y. and Dorji, T. 2013. Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan: a hot spot for wild felids. Oryx 47: 207–210.

Velho, N. 2013. Misty mountains. Sanctuary Asia: 68-70.

Wang, S.W. 2007. A rare morph of the Asiatic golden cat in Bhutan's Jigme Singye Wangchuk National Park. Cat News 47: 27-28.

Willcox, D., Phuong, T.Q., Duc, H.M. and An, N.T.T. 2014. The decline of non-Panthera cat species in Vietnam. Cat News Sepcial Issue 8: 53-61.


Citation: McCarthy, J., Dahal, S., Dhendup, T., Gray, T.N.E., Mukherjee, S., Rahman, H., Riordan, P., Boontua, N. & Wilcox, D. 2016. Catopuma temminckii. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T4038A97165437. . Downloaded on 27 July 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided