|Scientific Name:||Cebus kaapori|
|Species Authority:||Queiroz, 1992|
Cebus olivaceus Queiroz, 1992 subspecies kaapori
|Taxonomic Notes:||Silva Jr (2001, 2002) argued that the tufted capuchins and the untufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) are so distinct in their morphology that they should be considered separate genera. Cebus Erxleben, 1777 for the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792 is the name available for the tufted capuchins.
Cebus kaapori had previously been recorded from Maranhão by Vieira (1957) but was registered as Cebus nigrivittatus and overlooked in subsequent assessments of the range of the species. Masterson (1995) reported on a cranial study. Harada and Ferrari (1996) argued that Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992 should be considered a subspecies of C. olivaceus. Considered a full species by Groves (2001, 2005) and Silva Jr. (2001).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Kierulff, M.C.M. & de Oliveira, M.M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Critically Endangered due to a drastic population reduction over the past 3 generations (48 years). During this period it is estimated that the population has been reduced by at least 80% due to both deforestation and hunting for bushmeat. Lopes and Ferrari (1993) and Ferrari and Queiroz (1994) concluded that Cebus kaapori is one of the most threatened of all the Amazonian primates.
|Range Description:||Cebus kaapori was described from the eastern Amazon in the state of Maranhão and eastern part of the state of Pará in 1992. The distribution of this form is now quite well known, occurring east of the lower Rio Tocantins to the right bank of the Rio Grajaú in Maranhão where it entres the Zona dos Cocais (Queiroz 1992; Ferrari and Queiroz 1994; Ferrari and Souza Jr 1994; Ferrari and Lopes 1996; Silva, Jr. and Cerqueira 1998; Carvalho, Jr. et al. 1999; Cunha et al. 2007). Although possibly extending as far east as the Mearim-Itapecuru interfluvium in the past, Silva Jr and Cerqueira (1998) concluded that it can be "considered practically absent from the right bank of the Rio Grajaú, eastwards".|
Native:Brazil (Maranhão, Pará)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Ferrari and Lopes (1996) estimated a density of 0.98 individuals/km² in the Gurupí Biological Reserve. Ferrari and Lopes (1996) attribute the scarcity of this species to hunting and to interspecific competition with sympatric Cebus apella.
Carvalho Jr. et al. (1999) reported a population survey in the Fazenda Cauaxi in Paragominas, north-eastern Pará, Brazil. The realtive abundance of Cebus kaapori was 0.99 groups/10 km (over 71 km). Lopes (1993) saw three groups in 480 km walked in the Gurupí Biological Reserve.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Undisturbed and and slightly disturbed dense lowland Amazonian high forest, at altitudes of 200 m or less (Queiroz 1992). Can also be found in edge habitat in the transition with the Zona dos Cocais due to its propensity to feed on palm fruit. Capuchin monkeys are arboreal quadrepeds, and are typically found in the lower to mid-canopy and understorey (Freese and Oppenheimer 1981; Fragaszy et al. 2004; Jack 2007).
Capuchin monkeys are frugivores-insectivores, including a wide variety of fruits, seeds and arthropods, frogs, nestlings and even small mammals, supplemented by stems, flowers and leaves. They are extractive, manipulative foragers. Groups seen by Carvalho Jr et al. (1999) ranged in size from 1 to 7 individuals. Males disperse. Both sexes take up linear hierarchies, the top ranking male being dominant to the top ranking female. Subordinate males are often peripheral (Fragaszy et al. 2004).
Paratype. Adult male HB 46.5 cm, TL 51.0 cm, 3.05 kg (Queiroz 1982).
|Major Threat(s):||The major threat is habitat loss, as its forests in southern Pará and Maranhão have been extensively destroyed over the last 10 years and continue to be so. It is the region with the highest human population density and the highest level of deforestation and habitat degradation in the entire Brazilian Amazon (Carvalho Jr. et al. 1999). The Gurupí Biological Reserve is the only protected area where it is known to occur, but the reserve has lost more than half of its forest. Lopes (1993) concluded that selective logging was particularly prejudicial to Cebus kaapori due to the loss of trees providing fruits that are a significant component of its diet. The species is also hunted. Guajá indians keep them as pets (Queiroz 1992).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is recorded from the Gurupí Biological Reserve (272,379 ha) (Queiroz 1992) and Lago de Tucuruí State Environmental Protection Area (568,667 ha) (Cunha et al. 2007). It is listed on CITES Appendix II.|
Carvalho, O., Jr, de Pinto, A. C. B. and Galetti, M. 1999. New observations on Cebus kaapori in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 7(2): 41-43.
Cunha, F. A., Lopes, M. A., Dantas, S. de M., do Carmo, N. A. S. and da Silva, S. do S. B. 2007. Registro de ocorrência de Cebus kaapori (Cebidae: Primates) na APA Lago de Tucuruí. Neotropical Primates 14(2): 84-85.
Ferrari, S. F. and de Souza Jr., A. P. 1994. More untufted capuchins in southeastern Amazonia? Neotropical Primates 2(1): 9-10.
Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes, M. A. 1996. Primate populations in eastern Amazonia. Plenum Press, New York, USA.
Ferrari, S. F. and Queiroz, H. L. 1994. Two new Brazilian primates discovered, endangered. Oryx 28: 31-36.
Fragaszy, D. M., Visalberghi, E. and Fedigan, L. 2004. The Complete Capuchin: The Biology of the Genus Cebus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Freese, C. H. and Oppenheimer, J. R. 1981. The capuchin monkeys, Cebus. In: A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds), The Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1., pp. 331-390. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Harada, M. L. and Ferrari, S. F. 1996. Reclassification of Cebus kaapori Queiroz 1992 based on new specimens from eastern Pará, Brazil. Abstracts. XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, XIXth Congress of the American Society of Primatologists, #729, August 11?16, 1996,. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1949. Mammals of northern Colombia. Preliminary report No. 4: Monkeys (Primates) with taxonomic revisions of some forms. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 98: 323?427.
Hershkovitz, P. 1955. Notes on the American monkeys of the genus Cebus. Journal of Mammalogy 36: 449?452.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Jack, K. 2007. The cebines: toward an explanation of variable social structure. In: C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C. Mackinnon, M. Panger and S. K. Bearder (eds), Primates in Perspective, pp. 107-123. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Lopes, M. A. 1993. Conservação do Cuxiú-preto, Chiropotes satanas satanas (Cebidae: Primates) e de outros Mamíferos na Amazônia Oriental. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Pará.
Lopes, M. A. and Ferrari, S. F. 1993. Primate conservation in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 1(4): 8-9.
Lopes, M. A. and Ferrari, S. F. 1996. Preliminary observations on the Ka?apor capuchin Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992 from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Biological Conservation 76: 321-324.
Masterson, T. J. 1995. Morphological relationships between the Ka?apor capuchin (Cebus kaapori Queiroz 1992) and other male Cebus crania: a preliminary report. Neotropical Primates 3: 165-71.
Queiroz, H. L. 1992. A new species of capuchin monkey, genus Cebus Erxleben 1977 (Cebidae, Primates), from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia 15: 1?3.
Silva Jr., J. de S. 2001. Especiação nos macacos-prego e caiararas, gênero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebidae). Doctoral Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
Silva Jr., J. de S. 2002. Sistemática dos macacos ?prego e caiararas, gênero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebidae). Livro de Resumos, X Congresso Brasieliero de Primatologia: Amazônia ? A Última Fronteira: 35. Bélém, Brazil.
Silva, Jr., J. S. and Cerqueira, R. 1998. New data and a historical sketch on the geographical distribution of the Ka?apor capuchin, Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992. Neotropical Primates 6(4): 118-121.
Vieira, C. da C. 1957. Sobre mamíferos do Estado do Maranhão. Papeis Avulsos, Zoologia, São Paulo 13: 125-132.
|Citation:||Kierulff, M.C.M. & de Oliveira, M.M. 2008. Cebus kaapori. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 July 2014.|
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