Gorilla beringei ssp. graueri
|Scientific Name:||Gorilla beringei ssp. graueri Matschie, 1914|
See Gorilla beringei
Gorilla gorilla ssp. graueri Matschie, 1914
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. and Wilson D.E. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World: Volume 3 Primates. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.|
This taxon appeared in the 1996 Red List as Gorilla gorilla graueri; now it is recognised as one of two subspecies of Eastern Gorilla (Gorilla beringei) following Groves (2001). It was also formerly known as the "Eastern Lowland Gorilla", which is a misnomer.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A4bcd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Plumptre, A., Nixon, S., Caillaud, D., Hall, J.S., Hart, J.A., Nishuli, R. & Williamson, E.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B.|
|Contributor(s):||Butynski, T.M., Critchlow, R., Gray, M., Kirkby, A., Kujirakwinja, D., Mehlman, P. & Vieilledent, G.|
Gorilla beringei graueri has been severely affected by human activities, most notably poaching for bushmeat associated with artisanal mining camps and for commercial trade. This illegal hunting has been facilitated by a proliferation of firearms due to widespread insecurity in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo for the past 20 years. The presence of armed groups in national parks restricted the ability of conservation organisations to operate in much of Grauer’s range during this period. New surveys have confirmed that Grauer's Gorilla numbers have dropped dramatically from around 16,900 to approximately 3,800 individuals since 1994 (Plumptre et al. 2015). An estimated population reduction of 77% in just one generation more than qualifies this subspecies as Critically Endangered under criterion A. The causes of the reduction, although largely understood, have certainly not ceased and are not easily reversible. At 11 sites across their geographic range, Grauer's Gorillas continue to decline at an average rate of 5% per year (Plumptre et al. 2015). At this rate of loss, 97% of the entire population will be gone by 2054 (three generations). Continuation of the population reduction is expected because of the high levels of poaching, loss of habitat and deterioration of habitat quality caused by expanding human populations, and ongoing civil unrest and lawlessness in the geographic range of this taxon.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Gorilla beringei graueri (Matschie 1914) is endemic to the forests of the Albertine Rift escarpment in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It has a discontinuous distribution from the lowlands east of the Lualaba River to the Mitumba Mountains and the Itombwe Massif. Mt. Tshiaberimu in Virunga National Park is the northern limit of Grauer’s Gorilla’s geographic range. The southern limit is a subpopulation in the Hewa Bora region, Fizi District (Plumptre et al. 2009), but was formerly further south in the area west of Fizi on the escarpment west of Lake Tanganyika (Schaller 1963, Butynski 2001). Based on a predicted occupancy rather than the range of known populations, the subspecies has an area of occupancy (AOO) estimated at 19,700 km² (Plumptre et al. 2015).|
Key sites for Grauer’s Gorilla are Kahuzi-Biega National Park (KBNP), the forests north and west of the KBNP lowland sector (between the Lowa, Luka and Oku rivers), Maiko National Park (MNP), Kisimba-Ikobo Nature Reserve, Tayna Nature Reserve and the Usala Forest. Grauer’s Gorillas have also been recorded at several localities in the remote mountain chain that extends from the confluence of the Mesa and Oso rivers (southeast of MNP) to the forests west of Pinga (Maldonado et al. 2012). Anecdotal reports suggest that small isolated populations may still exist north of MNP, between Angumu and Opienge (ICCN unpublished data 2015).
Although formerly known as the Eastern Lowland Gorilla, this subspecies occurs over the widest altitudinal range of any Gorilla, ranging from approximately 600 m to 2,900 m asl (Williamson and Butynski 2013).
Native:Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population of G. b. graueri in 1994-1995 was estimated to be 16,900 individuals (Hall et al. 1998a,b). Since that time, widespread insecurity and poaching for bushmeat, particularly around mining camps, have led to increasing fragmentation of populations and reduction of numbers. Some populations have disappeared together with their habitat. Others have suffered major reductions, for example, in the Itombwe Massif, at least five of the 17 population concentrations located by Schaller (1959) had disappeared by 1996 (Omari et al. 1999). In 2006, a number of those subpopulations were down to just a few individuals (Tshombe 2006), while populations west and south of MNP have become very rare (Nixon 2010). The remnant population at Mt. Tshiaberimu exists in a perilous situation: with fewer than six individuals remaining (Sikubwabo 2015) and isolated from other Gorilla populations, it is highly threatened by low genetic viability.|
Using survey data collected between 2010 and 2015, Plumptre et al. (2015) estimated that the total number of Grauer's Gorillas remaining is only 3,800; a 77% loss since 1994. This estimate was based upon three methods of assessment: comparison of line-transect surveys effected between 1994 and 2014 at four sites in KBNP; comparison of encounter rates of nests between recess walked in 1994 and 2011-2015 across 11 sites; and a spatial occupancy analysis that predicted Gorilla occupancy and numbers across their range. Each method resulted in estimates of 77% or higher reduction in the Grauer’s Gorilla population. Encounter rates indicate an annual rate of decline of 5% at many of the sites surveyed, due to fragmentation and illegal hunting around the many artisanal mining camps and villages located in areas where Gorillas occur (Plumptre et al. 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Gorilla b. graueri occurs in lowland tropical rainforest through transitional forests to Afromontane habitat, ranging between 600 and 2,900 m asl. Grauer’s Gorillas show a preference for regenerating vegetation associated with abandoned fields and villages (Schaller 1963). Their diet is rich in herbs, leaves, bark, lianas and vines, seasonally-available fruit, bamboo (at higher altitudes) and insects (Ferriss et al. 2005, Yamagiwa et al. 2005).|
Demographic data for Grauer’s Gorilla are scarce; however, a large demographic dataset is available for Mountain Gorillas (G. b. beringei). Analyses of Mountain Gorilla data indicate that Eastern Gorillas have a generation time of 18.2 years for females and 20.4 years for males (Langergraber et al. 2012). Generation length is likely to be comparable for both subspecies, at close to 20 years.
|Generation Length (years):||20|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||
Gorillas are completely protected by national and international laws in all countries of their range, and it is, therefore, illegal to kill, capture or trade in live Gorillas or their body parts.
Major threats to G. b. graueri are:
The Eastern Gorilla is listed under Class A of the African Convention and Appendix I of CITES. Only 26% of the predicted range of Grauer’s Gorillas occurs in national parks and nature reserves; the remaining 74% is currently unprotected (Plumptre et al. 2015). Fortunately several large subpopulations reside in the existing protected area network, where international NGOs are supporting government programmes. However, due to the widespread presence of armed groups, conservation organisations are hampered in their ability to operate in much of eastern DRC.
A conservation presence should be reinforced in all existing protected areas, strengthening activities that are already in place, while moving forwards with the gazetting of areas that support significant Gorilla populations, such as the Réserve de Gorille de Punia (Kasese region) and the Itombwe Reserve (Plumptre et al. 2015). Attaining national reserve status for existing community-based conservation projects west of Walikale (between Kasese in the west and Tulakwa in the east) and south of the Maiko National Park would protect additional important Gorilla populations. The remote Usala forest supports one of the largest subpopulations of Grauer’s Gorillas (Nixon et al. 2015, Plumptre et al. 2015), yet no conservation activities exist in the region. Urgent efforts must be made to engage with rural communities in Usala and other unprotected forests to monitor Gorilla populations, provide protection from hunting, and reduce habitat destruction. Surveys to assess the status of currently-inaccessible populations, including those in Maiko National Park, should be carried out as soon as security permits.
Conservation challenges are likely to increase as the DRC government continues its efforts to stabilize the east. Security will favour industrial extraction, large-scale agriculture and infrastructure. While development will increase the country's ability to support its human population and participate in the global economy, it will also result in increased human settlement in forest areas critical to Gorillas. Targeted conservation action in priority sites will be vital to slow the demise of this subspecies. Detailed information on conservation measures needed to protect the Grauer's Gorilla can be found in an IUCN action plan (Maldonado et al. 2012). See Plumptre et al. (2015) for additional recommendations.
|Errata reason:||This is an errata version of the 2016 assessment to replace the reference "Williamson et al. 2013" with the correct reference "Williamson and Butynski 2013" in the Bibliography section.|
Ayebare, S., Ponce-Reyes, R., Segan, D.B., Watson, J.E.M., Possingham, H.P., Seimon, A. and Plumptre, A.J. 2013. Identifying Climate-Resilient Corridors for Conservation in the Albertine Rift. Report to MacArthur Foundation. Wildlife Conservation Society, Kampala.
Butynski, T.M. 2001. Africa's great apes. In: B.B. Beck, T.S. Stoinski, M. Hutchins, T L. Maple, B. Norton, A. Rowan, E.F. Stevens and A. Arluke (eds), Great Apes and Humans: The Ethics of Coexistence, pp. 3–56. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, USA.
Ferriss, S., Robbins, M.M. and Williamson, E.A. 2005. Eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei). In: J. Caldecott and L. Miles (eds), The World Atlas of Great Apes and their Conservation., pp. 129-152. University California Press., Berkeley, California, USA.
Groves C.P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Hall, J. S., Saltonstall, K., Inogwabini, B.-I. and Omari, I. 1998a. Distribution, abundance and conservation status of Grauer’s gorilla. Oryx 32: 122–130.
Hall, J.S., White, L.J.T., Inogwabini, B.-I., Omari, I., Morland, H.S., Williamson, E.A., Saltonstall, K., Walsh, P., Sikubwabo, C., Bonny, D., Kiswele, K.P., Vedder, A. and Freeman, K. 1998b. Survey of Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla gorilla graueri) and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park lowland sector and adjacent forest in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology 19: 207–235.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Kirkby, A., Spira, C., Bahati, B., Twendilonge, A., Kujirakwinja, D., Plumptre, A.J., Wielland, M. and Nishuli, R. 2015. Investigating Artisanal Mining and Bushmeat around Protected Areas: Kahuzi-Biega National Park and Itombwe Reserve. Report to USAID and Arcus Foundation. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York.
Langergraber, K.E., Prüfer, K., Rowney, C., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Fawcett, K., Inoue, E., Inoue-Muruyama, M., Mitani, J.C., Muller, M.N., Robbins, M.M., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T.S., Viola, B., Watts, D., Wittig, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., Zuberbühler, K., Pääbo, S. and Vigilant, L. 2012. Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 15716–15721.
Maldonado, O., Aveling, C., Cox, D., Nixon, S., Nishuli, R., Merlo, D., Pintea, L. and Williamson, E.A. 2012. Grauer’s Gorillas and Chimpanzees in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (Kahuzi-Biega, Maiko, Tayna and Itombwe Landscape): Conservation Action Plan 2012–2022. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation & Tourism, Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature and Jane Goodall Institute, Gland, Switzerland.
Nixon, S.C. 2010. Participatory assessment of Grauer's eastern gorilla and other wildlife in the Lubutu sector of Maiko National Park and adjacent forests. Fauna & Flora International. Unpublished report, Cambridge, UK.
Nixon, S., Kaghoma, C. and Vyalengerera, M. 2015. The status of Grauer’s gorilla in the Usala Forest. Gorilla Journal 50: 4–7.
Omari, I. Hart, J. Butynski, T., Birhashirwa., Upoki, A., Mkeyo, Y., Bengana, F. Bashonga, M. and Bagurubumwe, N. 1999. The Itombwe Massif, Democratic Republic of Congo: Biological surveys and conservation, with an emphasis on Grauer’s gorilla and birds endemic to the Albertine Rift. Oryx 33: 301–319.
Plumptre, A.J., Amsini, F., Kujirakwinja, D., Hart, J., Nyembo, B., Vyahavwa, C., Bujo, F., Masanga, A., Matunguru, J., Mwinyihali, R. and Tshombe, R. 2009. Itombwe Massif Conservation Project: Delimitation and zoning of the Itombwe Natural Reserve for protection of great apes. Report to US Fish and Wildlife Service. Project 98210 – 7– G293. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York.
Plumptre, A.J., Nixon, S., Critchlow, R., Vieilledent, G., Nishuli, R., Kirkby, A., Williamson, E.A., Hall, J.S. and Kujirakwinja, D. 2015. Status of Grauer’s Gorilla and Chimpanzee in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Historical and Current Distribution and Abundance. Wildlife Conservation Society, Fauna & Flora International and Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature, New York.
Robbins, A.M., Robbins, M.M., Gerald-Steklis, N. and Steklis, H.D. 2006. Age-related patterns of reproductive success among female mountain gorillas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 131: 511–521.
Robbins, M.M. 1995. A demographic analysis of male life history and social structure of mountain gorillas. Behaviour 132: 21-47.
Schaller, G. B. 1963. The Mountain Gorilla: Ecology and Behavior. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Sikubwabo, C.K. 2015. Can the gorillas of Mt Tshiaberimu survive? Gorilla Journal 50: 3–4.
Stearns, J and Vogel, C. 2015. The Landscape of Armed Groups in the Eastern Congo. Available at: http://congoresearchgroup.org/essay-the-landscape-of-armed-groups-in-eastern-congo-2/.
Tshombe, R. 2006. Development of Community-Based Conservation of Gorillas and Chimpanzees in the Itombwe Massif, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Final Report USFWS Agreement No 982105G153. WCS, New York.
Williamson, E.A. and Butynski, T.M. 2013. Gorilla beringei Eastern Gorilla. In: T.M. Butynski, J. Kingdon and J. Kalina (eds), Mammals of Africa, pp. 45–53. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.
Yamagiwa, J., Basabose, A K., Kaleme, K. and Yumoto, T. 2005. Diet of Grauer’s gorillas in the montane forest of Kahuzi, Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology 26: 1345–1373.
Yamagiwa, J., Kahekwa, J. and Basabose, A.K. 2003. Intra-specific variation in social organization of gorillas: implications for their social evolution. Primates 44: 359–369.
|Citation:||Plumptre, A., Nixon, S., Caillaud, D., Hall, J.S., Hart, J.A., Nishuli, R. & Williamson, E.A. 2016. Gorilla beringei ssp. graueri (errata version published in 2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T39995A102328430.Downloaded on 20 September 2018.|
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