Pithecia monachus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Pithecia monachus
Species Authority: (É. Geoffroy, 1812)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name/s:
English Geoffroy's Monk Saki, Miller's Monk Saki
Spanish Parahuaco Común O Negro
Taxonomic Notes: The taxonomy and distribution of Pithecia here generally follows Hershkovitz (1987) and Eisenberg (1989). Two subspecies are here recognized (milleri and the nominate), although the form napensis Lönnberg, 1939 has been treated as a distinct subspecies (e.g., Rylands et al. 2000). The taxonomy of the genus is currently being revised (L. Marsh pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: Marsh, L.K. & Veiga, L.M.
Reviewer/s: Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
The species has a fairly wide range, and although there are declines due to habitat loss and hunting, they are not considered to be severe enough to warrant listing in a threatened category or even as Near Threatened. Hence it is listed as Least Concern.
2003 Least Concern (IUCN 2003)
2003 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: There are two recognized subspecies:

Pithecia monachus monachus has a relatively wide range in the upper Amazon. It is found throughout eastern Ecuador and Peru, south to Ucayali and east to the Rio Juruá in Brazil. In Colombia, it occurs south of the Caquetá River (including the Columbian trapezium) to the region of Puerto Lopez (Defler 2004).

Pithecia monachus milleri has a poorly known range, but is thought to occur between the Orteguaza River to the Putumayo River up to about 500-600 m in Colombia. (T. Defler pers. comm.). The exact limit between the subspecies is unknown. It may be found between the Ríos Caguán and Yarí.
Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Near the Purite river in Colombia, densities were calculated at between 2 and 14.5 individuals/km² (Defler 2003). Palacios and Peres (2005) estimated a density of 11 individuals/km² in Ayo, below the Caqueta River.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The nominate subspecies prefers terra firme tropical forest in Ecuador (de la Torre et al. 1995), but may use flooded forest and can survive in forest patches (Defler 2003). P. m. milleri occurs in primary forest and flooded forest (Igapó).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to the species are habitat loss due to human settlement and land-use changes (Defler 2003). It is also subject to hunting.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: P. m. milleri occurs in the La Paya National Park (422,000 ha) (T. Defler pers. comm.).

P. m. monachus occurs in the following national parks in Colombia: Cahuinaría, Amacayacu, and Puré (T. Defler pers. comm.).

The species occurs in several reserves and protected areas in Peru, but protection may be limited. Reported to occur in the Cuyabeno Reserve in Ecuador (de la Torre et al. 1995).
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Bibliography [top]

Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.

Bodmer, R. E., Allen, C. M., Penn, J. W., Aquino, R. and Reyes, C. 1999. Evaluating the sustainable use of wildlife in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, Peru. America Verde Working Paper No. 4 Latin America and Caribean Region. The Nature Conservancy.

Defler, T. R. 1994. La conservación de primates en Colombia. Trianea 5: 255-287.

Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.

Defler, T. R., Rodríguez-M., J. V. and Hernández-Camacho, J. I. 2003. Conservation priorities for Colombian primates. Primate Conservation 19: 10-18.

Eisenberg, J. F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.

Eisenberg, J. F. and Redford, K. H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

Hernández-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1989. Algunos aspectos de la conservación de primates no-humanos en Colombia. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), La Primatología en Latinoamerica, pp. 67-100. WWF-U.S., Washington, DC, USA.

Hershkovitz, P. 1979. The species of sakis, genus Pithecia (Cebidae, Primates), with notes on sexual dichromatism. Folia Primatologica 31: 1-22.

Hershkovitz, P. 1987. The taxonomy of South American sakis, genus Pithecia (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary report and critical review with the description of a new species and new subspecies. American Journal of primatology 12: 387-468.

Mittermeier, R. A. 1977. Distribution, Synecology, and Conservation of Surinam Monkeys. Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University.

Norconk, M. A. 2007. Saki, uakaris, and titi monkeys: behavioral diversity in a radiation of primate seed predators. In: C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C.MacKinnon, M. Panger and S. K. Bearder (eds), Primates in Perspectives, pp. 123-138. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.

Norconk, M. A., Raghanti, M. A., Martin, S. K., Grafton, B. W., Gregory, L. T. and De Dijn, B. P. E. 2003. Primates of Brownsberg Natuurpark, Suriname, with particular attention to pitheciins. Neotropical Primates 11(2): 94–100.

Palacios, E. and Peres, C. A. 2005. Primate population densities in three nutrient-poor Amazonian terra firme forests of south-eastern Colombia. Folia Primatologica 76: 135-145.

Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier, R. A., Groves, C. P. and Rodríguez-Luna, E. 2000. An assessment of the diversity of New World primates. Neotropical Primates 8(2): 61-93.

Tirira, D. 2001. Libro Rojo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Sociedad para la Investigación y Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad Ecuatoriana (SIMBIOE) / Ecociencias / Ministerio del Ambiente / UICN. Publicación Especial sobre los Mamíferos del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Tirira, D. 2007. Guía de Campo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Ediciones Murciélago Blanco. Publicación especial sobre los mamíferos del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Torre, S., de la, Utreras, V. and Campos, F. 1995. An overview of primatological studies in Ecuador: Primates of the Cuyabeno Reserve. Neotropical Primates 3(4): 169-170.

Citation: Marsh, L.K. & Veiga, L.M. 2008. Pithecia monachus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 21 April 2014.
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