|Scientific Name:||Alouatta palliata|
|Species Authority:||(Gray, 1849)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The taxonomy of the howlers of Mesoamerica and the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia and Ecuador is based on Lawrence (1933), Hill (1962), Hall (1981), Froehlich and Froehlich (1986, 1987), and Cortés-Ortiz et al. (2002). Groves (2001, 2005) recognized only A. palliata (Gray, 1849) (no subspecies), A. pigra (Lawrence, 1933), and A. coibensis Thomas, 1902 (no subspecies). Rylands et al. (2006) reviewed the taxonomy and distributions of Alouatta palliata, A. coibensis and A. pigra.
Using mtDNA markers, Cortés-Ortiz et al. (2002) found that Alouatta palliata and A. coibensis comprise a very closely related and monophyletic group of mtDNA lineages. The mitochondrial DNA divergence between the nominal species A. palliata and A. coibensis is very low, showing only 0.1% sequence divergence, more than an order of magnitude fewer nucleotide substitutions than were observed between any other pair of Alouatta species. Divergence between A. palliata and A. coibensis is similar to mitochondrial DNA distances observed between geographically separated populations within each of these two species. Rylands et al. (2006) maintained the taxonomy suggested by Froehlich and Froehlich (1987) for the forms from the Azuero Peninsula (A. coibensis coibensis) and Island of Coiba (Panama) (A. c. trabeata), but it is evident that the findings of the molecular genetic analyses of Cortés-Ortiz (2002) would relegate them to synonyms of A. palliata. Groves (2001, 2005) listed A. coibensis Thomas, 1902, with trabeata Lawrence, 1933, as a junior synonym.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Cuarón, A.D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E., de Grammont, P.C., Link, A., Palacios, E., Morales, A. & Cortés-Ortiz, L.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Last Concern given its widespread distribution, presence in numerous protected areas, and because there are no major threats believed to be resulting in a significant range-wide population decline that would warrant listing in Near Threatened or a threatened category.
|Range Description:||There are five recognized subspecies:
Alouatta palliata palliata
The range limits separating A. p. aequatorialis from A. p. palliata are not clear. Lawrence (1933) cited a specimen of A. p. palliata from Cotó, extreme western Panama, and Hill (1962, p.106) mentioned that specimens from Sevilla Island, western Panama, collected by J. H. Batty were “manifestly” A. p. palliata. Hall (1981), on the other hand, lists Sevilla Island, and Puerto Cortez, Costa Rica, as marginal records for A. p. aequatorialis. Many individuals from Panama are intermediate (Lawrence 1933). From eastern Costa Rica, at least, A. p. palliata extends through Nicaragua to northern Honduras and, according to Curdts (1993), it just extends into Guatemala to the Río Motagua and possibly along the coast a short distance to the Cabo de Tres Puntas, where it meets A. pigra. Baumgarten and Williamson (2007) found the northern most limit of A. palliata palliata in the south margin of Rio Dulce. It is not known to occur in El Salvador to the south (Burt and Stirton 1961). There are no current records of this subspecies in El Salvador, although it evidently occurred there in the past (Daugherty 1972).
Alouatta palliata mexicana
The range of A. p. mexicana extends eastward from south-eastern Mexico, provinces of Vera Cruz, Tabasco, and northern Chiapas and Oaxaca. As discussed by Smith (1970), in Tabasco A. p. mexicana meets, and is sympatric with, A. pigra in a region five miles south-east of Macuspana. García-Orduña et al. (1999) found mixed populations of the two species in small habitat fragments in Tabasco (see also Rodríguez-Luna et al. 2001). Cortés-Ortiz et al. (2003) recorded a zone of contact and possible hybridization between A. palliata mexicana and A. pigra between the ríos Grijalva and Usamacinta on the Mexico-Guatemala border. Although several published maps include its range as extending into the highlands of Chiapas and into north-central Guatemala, an ongoing study (A. Cuarón) indicates that this subspecies range is restricted to western Chiapas, central and western Tabasco, south-eastern Veracruz, and eastern Oaxaca.
Baumgarten and Williamson (2007) provide the most recent review of the limits of the distributions of Alouatta palliata and A. pigra in Central America and Mexico. They found that the highland massif of northern Central America (including the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and central highland of Guatemala) and its associated coniferous and subalpine vegetation formed a geographic barrier separating A. pigra from A. palliata, and define the southern limit of A. pigra. They discussed the two contact zones between them: the broad range of overlap north of the highland massif in Mexico over the lowlands of the states of Tabasco and Campeche, and a narrow area of contiguous, non-overlapping ranges in eastern Guatemala where the highlands extend almost to the Caribbean. In the first, the localities where parapatry has been observed include Macuspana, Tabasco (Smith 1970, Horwich and Johnson 1986), around Zapata, Tabasco (Horwich and Johnson 1986) and the northern point of the Laguna de Términos in Campeche (Serio-Silva et al. 2006). There is no geographical barrier separating the species, both occur in the same forests and on both sides of the Rio Usamacinta, for example (Cortés-Ortiz et al. 2003). In the second, the ranges are narrowly parapatric, separated by the Río Dulce and the Lago Izabal: A. palliata to the south and A. pigra to the north and west. South-west of Lake Izabal, A. pigra occurs in the highlands of the Sierra de las Minas, but not in the lowlands, occupied by A. palliata. Any past range overlap in this region will have been lost by the extensive loss of forest (the area is heavily farmed). Baumgarten (2006) found no evidence to support sympatry supposed previously by Horwich and Johnson (1986), Curdts (1993) and Silva-López et al. (1998).
Baumgarten ansd Williamson (2007) argued that A. palliata will have occurred on the Pacific side of the highland massif of northern Central America in the past. There are historical records in Mexico (Estrada and Coates-Estrada 1984), Guatemala (Handley 1950), and El Salvador (Daugherty 1972).
Alouatta palliata aequatorialis
A. p. aequatorialis occurs in Panama, from the southern limit to the range of A. p. palliata (either in western Panama or extreme eastern Costa Rica), through the Serranía del Darién (Anthony 1916, Lawrence 1933) into western Colombia, north through the basins of the Ríos Sinú and Atrato to the Caribbean coast, and south through the Serranía del Baudó (Defler 2003) and the foothills, lowlands and lower montane areas west of the Andes to the Pacific coast, through Colombia and Ecuador, just into the Tumbes and Piura region of northern Peru (Aquino and Encarnación 1994; Encarnación and Cook 1998; Tirira 2001, 2007).
Alouatta palliata coibensis
This howler monkey is known only from Coiba Island and neighbouring Jicarón, off the Pacific coast of Panama.
Alouatta palliata trabeata
This subspecies is endemic to the Azuero Peninsula, Panama (Froehlich and Froehlich 1987, Rowe 2000, Mendes-Carvajal 2005).
Native:Colombia (Colombia (mainland)); Costa Rica; Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland)); Guatemala; Honduras (Honduras (mainland)); Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Veracruz); Nicaragua (Nicaragua (mainland)); Panama; Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Alouatta palliata palliata
This subspecies is known to occur in densities of 8–10 individuals/ha in fragmented habitats. In Nicaragua (Williams-Guillen, Otterstrom, Hagell, Gomez-Fuentes, 2007) and Costa Rica this subspecies is abundant.
Alouatta palliata mexicana
Although this subspecies has a very restricted range, encompassing areas of highly disturbed vegetation with extremely high rate of loss, in some fragments the subspecies may be locally common.
Alouatta palliata aequatorialis
In one study in Colombia, 20 individuals/km² were recorded near a biological station Armargal (Ramirez-Sanchez 2003). Recent faunal surveys in Utria National Park found them to be extremely rare, in areas where they were much more common in years past (H. Rubio pers. comm.). On the Osa pennisula, Costa Rica, in Corcovado National Park, densities were recorded at 0.2 groups/km² and in Golfo Dulce at 0.1/groups/km² (Carrillo et al. 2000).
Alouatta palliata trabeata
There is an observation of 430 individuals in 35 troops recorded within 355 km² of fragmented forest (Méndez-Carvajal 2005).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species occupies a number of vegetation types and can be found in seasonal and nonseasonal forests, and in mangroves and swamps (Baumgarten and Williamson 2007). According to the last authors, A. palliata does not occur above 2,000 m, and most of its montane localities are at lower elevations.
The howler monkeys are the large leaf-eaters of the South American primate communities. Like the spider monkeys, they are prehensile-tailed, with a naked patch of skin on the under surface at the tip. Howler monkeys have small incisors and large, sexually dimorphic canines. The molar teeth are particularly adapted for their chewing leaves through shearing. Their most characteristic feature is the deep jaws which surround the enlarged larynx and hyoid apparatus, a resonating chamber. It is with this enlarged and highly specialized voice box that they produce their howls (grunts, roars and barks). Howling sessions, usually involving the entire group, can be heard particularly in the early morning and are audible at distances of 1–2 kms (Drubbel and Gautier, 1993). The red howlers (A. seniculus, A. macconnelli, A. juara, A. puruensis, and A. sara) have the largest voice boxes and the deepest roars, while the Mexican, Central American and northern Colombian mantled howlers, A. palliata and A. pigra, have the smallest, and their howls are more high pitched as a result.
The Mantled Howler Monkey is exceptional in the genus in that it may form large groups of more than 40 individuals, with a number of breeding males, although group size is generally less, averaging 14. For the other species, 14 is a large group, and they can usually be seen numbering four or five or up to 11 or so individuals. In the red howlers, there is usually only one dominant male in the group (occasionally two), others being sub-adults, or juveniles, along with a harem of two to five females. Unlike the spider monkeys, and related to the large proportion of leaves in the diet (up to 50% of the annual diet), the howler monkeys generally have quite small and broadly overlapping home ranges, of 5 ha up to 45 ha, depending on the type of habitat (Neville et al. 1988). The large groups of A. palliata may have home ranges extending to 60 ha (Estrada 1982), whereas in the llanos of northern Venezuela, home ranges of A. arctoidea can be as small as 4 ha (Sekulic 1982a).
Howlers are the only New World primates which regularly include mature leaves in their diet, although softer, less fibrous, young leaves are preferred when they are available. Their folivory and ability to eat mature leaves is undoubtedly one of the keys to their wide distribution and the wide variety of vegetation types they inhabit. Mature fruit is the other important food item, especially wild figs (Ficus) in many regions, but they also eat leaf petioles, buds, flowers (sometimes seasonally very important), seeds, moss, stems and twigs, and termitaria. Red howler monkeys have also been seen to eat and lick clay at so-called “salado” sites in the Colombian Amazon (Izawa 1975). The reason for this and the consumption of soil from termitaria is still not clearly understood, but may involve the need for certain minerals, or may be due to the properties of clay which, by adsorption, can reduce the effects of toxins ingested with leaves.
The diet of A. macconnelli has been studied by Mittermeier and van Roosmalen (1981) in Suriname and more recently during a long-term study in the Nouragues Field Station in French Guiana (Julliot and Sabatier 1993; Julliot 1994b,c, 1996a,b). It feeds mainly on soft parts of many different kinds of fruits, as well as flowers and young leaves. Also included in the diet are mature leaves, immature fruits, moss, bark, and the soil of termitaria. Julliot and Sabatier (1993) recorded the use of 195 plant species from 47 families. Seeds are ingested but only rarely eaten. As a result Alouatta, like Ateles, is an important seed disperser. Julliot (1996a) found that A. macconnelli dispersed the seeds of more than 95% of more than 100 plant species (especially Sapotaceae) from which they eat fruit over the two years of her observations.
Infant Alouatta are probably born throughout the year in Suriname, but data are not yet sufficient to determine if there is a birth peak. In Suriname, newborn infants have been seen in March, April, and November, and January (Mittermeier 1977). Crockett and Rudran (1987a,b) examined seasonal variation in births in red howlers from northern Venezuela, and found that they were less frequent during the early wet season (weaning would occur at the time of greatest food shortage). The llanos forests are more seasonal, however, than in the Guianas, and it is possible that this is not the case elsewhere. Oestrus lasts 2–4 days, with intervals between oestrous periods of about 17 days. Interbirth intervals are generally about 16.6 months, although they may be shortened by the death of an infant to about 10.5 months (Crockett and Sekulic 1984).
Size (see Glander (2006) for a discussion of body weight in mantled howling monkeys):
Adult male weight 7.15 kg (n=110+) (Peres 1994)
Adult female weight 5.35 kg (n=177+) (Peres 1994).
Adult male weight 6.53 kg (n=14) (Glander et al. 1991)
Adult female weight 5.35 kg (n=18) (Glander et al. 1991).
Adult male weight 7.8 kg (n=15) (Thorington Jr. et al. 1979)
Adult female weight 6.6 kg (n=15) (Thorington Jr. et al. 1979)
See Glander (2006) for a discussion of body weight in mantled howling monkeys.
Across its range, there are no major threats, although it is certainly susceptible to hunting and habitat loss. For example, forests on the Azuero Peninsula (the range of A. p. trabeata) have been largely destroyed and are highly fragmented. Likewise, habitat within the range of A. p. mexicana are known to have experienced very high rates of decline (Cuarón 1997).
In the Chocó region of Colombia, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis is at risk of widespread hunting by Afro-Colombian and indigenous people. Furthermore, over 90% of forests on the Atlantic coast of Colombia have been destroyed for agricultural and pasture; it is estimated that at least 31% of forest has been lost over the past 10 years alone (based on calculations from satellite photos; Miller et al. 2004). Ground truthing of this data found only 2.5% of viable secondary forest habitat remaining in this region (Miller et al. 2004).
This species occurs, or may occur, in several protected areas:
Alouatta palliata palliata
Santa Rosa National Park (21,913 ha) (Fedigan and Rose 1995; Matamoros et al. 1996; Matamoros and Seal 2001)
Rincón La Vieja National Park (14,083 ha) (Matamoros et al. 1996)
Palo Verde National Park (5,704 ha) (Matamoros et al. 1996)
Tortuguero National Park (18,946 ha) (in range)
Braulio Carrillo National Park (44,898 ha) (Matamoros et al. 1996; Matamoros and Seal 2001)
Manuel Antonio National Park (682 ha) (Matamoros et al. 1996)
Volcán Irazú National Park (2,309 ha) (in range)
Cahuita National Park (1,067 ha) (in range)
La Amistad (Talamanca) International Park (193,929 ha) (in range)
Chirripó National Park (50,150 ha) (in range)
Corcovado National Park (41,788 ha) (Matamoros et al. 1996)
Guanacaste National Park (33,786 ha) (Matamoros et al. 1996)
Volcán Tenorio National Park (12,819 ha)
Piedras Blancas National Park (14,100 ha)
Lomas de Barbudal Biological Reserve (2,279 ha) (Chapman et al. 1989)
Carara Biological Reserve (4,700 ha) (Matamoros et al. 1996)
Hitoy Cerere Biological Reserve (9,154 ha) (Matamoros et al. 1996)
Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve (7,683 ha) (in range)
Cabo Blanco Strict Nature Reserve (14,258 ha) (Lippold 1989)
La Selva Protection Zone (2,815 ha) (Fishkind and Sussman 1987; Campbell and Sussman 1994)
Punta Sal National Park (78,200 ha) (Matomoros and Seal 2001)
Montaña de Cusuco National Park (18,000 ha) (Marineros and Gallegos 1998)
Pico Bonito National Park (68,000 ha) (Marineros and Gallegos 1998; Matomoros and Seal 2001)
Pico Pijol National Park (11,400 ha) (in range)
Montaña de Yoro National Park (15,500 ha (Marineros and Gallegos 1998)
Santa Bárbara National Park (13,000 ha) (Matomoros and Seal 2001)
Cerro Azul Meambar National Park (39,000 ha (Marineros and Gallegos 1998)
Sierra de Agalta National Park(27,000 ha) (Marineros and Gallegos 1998)
Celaque National Park(18,000 ha (in range)
Montaña de Comayagua National Park (9918,000 ha) (in range)
Montecristo-Trifinio National Park (5,400 ha) (in range
La Tigra National Park (7,571 ha) in range)
Laguna de Guaymoreto (5,000 ha) ((Marineros and Gallegos 1998)
Capiro Calentura National Park (5,500 ha) (Matomoros and Seal 2001)
Laguna de Caratasca Wildlife Refuge (120,000 ha) (in range)
Misoco Biological Reserve (4,600 ha) (in range)
Volcán Pacayita Biological Reserve (9,700 ha) (in range)
Guisayote Biological Reserve (7,000 ha) (in range)
El Pital Biological Reserve (3,800 ha) (in range)
Opalaca Biological Reserve (14,500 ha) (in range)
El Chile Biological Reserve (6,000 ha (in range)
Montecillos Biological Reserve (12,500 ha) (in range)
Montaña San Pablo Biological Reserve (in range)
Guajiquiro Biological Reserve (7,000 ha) (in range
Yerba Buena Biological Reserve (3,600 ha) (in range)
Chiflador Biological Reserve (500 ha) (in range
Uyuca Biological Reserve (1,100 ha) (in range
Yuscarán Biological Reserve (2,300 ha) (in range)
Río Negro Biological Reserve (60,000 ha) (in range)
Barras Cuero y Salado Wildlife Refuge (12,300 ha) (Marineros and Gallegos 1998; Matamoros and Seal 2001)
Texiguat Wildlife Refuge (10,000 ha) (in range)
La Muralla National Park 7,000 ha (Marineros and Gallegos 1998; Matamoros and Seal 2001)
El Armado Wildlife Refuge (3,500 ha) (in range)
Erapuca Wildlife Refuge (5,600 ha) (in range)
Puca Wildlife Refuge (4,900 ha) (in range
Montaña Verde Wildlife Refuge (8,300 ha) (in range)
Mixcure Wildlife Refuge (8,000 ha) (in range
Montaña de Corralitos (5,500 ha) (in range)
Saslaya National Park (11,800 ha) (in range)
Volcán Masaya National Park (5,500 ha) (in range)
Archipelago Zapatera (5,227 ha) (in range)
Rio Escalante – Chococente Wildlife Refuge (4,800 ha) (in range)
Bismuna – Pahau – Cayos – Miskitos (80,000 ha) (in range)
Cerros de Bana Cruz Natural Reserve (10,100 ha) (in range)
Cordiella Diplito y Jalapa (1,500 ha) (in range)
Laguna Wonta (30,000 ha) (in range)
Cerro Wailwas (1,200 ha) (in range)
Kilambe Natural Reserve (6,000 ha (in range)
Peñas Blancas (7,000 ha) (in range)
Santa Maria de Osuma (2,000 ha) (in range)
Lagunas de Wancarlaya (8,000 ha) (in range)
Salto del Rio Estanzuela (200 ha) (in range)
Cerro Musún Natural Reserve (4,100 ha) (in range)
Boca del Rio Grande de Matagalpa (68,000 ha) (in range)
Lagunas Tecomapa, Moyua y La Playitas (in range)
Cordillera de Amerisque Natural Reserve (1,500 ha (in range)
Costa Sur del Pacifico (2,000 ha) (in range)
Cerro Tomasu (2,000 ha) (in range)
Volcán Cosiguina Natural Reserve (12,240 ha (in range)
Estero Real Natural Reserve (38,725 ha) (in range)
Complejo Volcánico Momotombo y Momotombito Natural Reserve (10,000 ha) (in range)
Peninsula de Chiltepe (1,800 ha) (in range)
Laguna de Tisma Natural Reserve (4,438 ha) (in range)
Volcán Mombacho – Laguna Mecatepe Natural Reserve (2,847 ha) (reported) (Crockett et al. 1997)
Volcan Madera Natural Reserve (4,100 ha) (in range)
Volcán Concepción Natural Reserve (2,200 ha) (in range)
Los Maribios (in range)
Estero Padre Ramos Natural Reserve (7,815 ha) (in range)
Reserva de la Biosfera Bosawas (1,100,000 ha) (Crockett et al. 1997)
Refugio Bartola / Río Indio-Maíz Biological Reserve (295,000 ha) (Crockett et al. 1997)
Alouatta palliata mexicana
Rio Dulce National Park (24,200 ha) (Curdts 1993; Silva-López et al. 1995, 1998)
Colcán Pacaya National Park (4,800 ha) (in range)
Lake Atitlan National Park (3,250 ha) (possible, Matamoros and Seal 2001)
Sipacate-Naranjo National Park (2,000 ha) (in range)
Biotopo Mario Dary Rivera Quetzal (1,150 ha) (A. pigra according to Curdts (1993), but A. palliata according to Silva-López et al. 1995, 1998; Matamoros and Seal 2001)
Biotopo de Chocon Machacas (7,000 ha) (sympatric with A. pigra; Curdts 1993; Silva-López et al. 1995, 1998; Matamoros and Seal 2001)
Biotopo Cerro Cahui (700 ha) (Silva-López et al. 1998; Matamoros and Seal 2001)
Biotopo San Miguel La Palotada (49,300 ha) (sympatric with A. pigra; Curdts 1993; Silva-López et al. 1995, 1998; Matamoros and Seal 2001)
Sierra de las Minas Biosphere Reserve (236,300 ha) (Silva-Lopes et al. 1995) (Sympatric with A. pigra; Curdts 1993; Silva-López et al. 1995, 1998; Matamoros and Seal 2001)
Cañon del Sumidero National Park (21,789 ha) (Estrada and Coates-Estrada 1984)
Volcán de San Martin Special Biosphere Reserve (1,500 ha) (Estrada and Coates-Estrada 1988; Mexico, SEDUE, 1989; Matamoros and Seal 2001)
Sierra de Santa Marta Special Biosphere Reserve (20,000 ha) (Silva-López 1982; Silva-López and Portilla-Ochoa 2002; Silva-López and Garcia-Orduña 1984; Silva-López et al. 1988, 1993; Matamoros and Seal 2001).
Selva del Ocote Special Biosphere Reserve (48,140 ha) ( Matamoros and Seal 2001)
El Triunfo National Biosphere Reserve (119,595 ha) (in range)
Estación Biologica Tropical ‘Los Tuxtlas” (700 ha) (Estrada and Coates-Estrada 1994)
Naja (Hernandez-Yañez pers. comm. in Rodríguez-Luna et al. 1996)
Metzaboc (Hernandez-Yañez pers. comm. in Rodríguez-Luna et al. 1996)
Parque La Venta Municipal Park (8 ha) (Fuentes et al. 2003)
Parque Yumká Municipal Park (101 ha) (Estrada et al. 2001; Del Valle et al. 2001; Muñoz et al. 2002)
Alouatta palliata aequatorialis
Ensenada de Utría Natural National Park (54,300 ha) (Defler 1994)
Los Katios Natural National Park (72,000 ha) (Defler 1994)
Munchique Natural National Park (44,000 ha) (possibly, Defler 1994)
Sanquinaga Natural National Park (80,000 ha) (Defler 1994)
Paramillo Natural National Park (460,000 ha) (possibly, Defler 1994)
Los Farallones Natural National Park (150,000 ha) (possibly, Defler 1994)
Machalilla Nartional Park (56,814 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve (243,638 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve (119,172 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Manglares Churute Ecological Reserve (49,894 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Los Cedros Protected Forest (Tirira 2007)
Porto Belo National Park (34,848 ha) (in range)
Chagres National Park (129,000 ha) (in range)
La Amistad International Park (207,000 ha) (in range)
Soberanía National Park (22,104 ha) (in range)
El Copé – Comar Torrijos Herrera (25,275 ha) (in range)
Volcán Baru National Park (14,000 ha) (in range)
Altos de Campana National Park (4,816 ha) (in range)
Darién National Park (555,000 ha) (in range)
La Fortuna Water Production Reserve (26,000 ha) (in range)
La Yeguada Forest Reserve (7,090 ha) (in range)
Canglón National Park (31,650 ha) (in range)
Cienega de Changuinola (in range)
Peninsula Valiente (in range)
Estero Rio Bayano (in range)
Cienega de Urey (in range)
Ensenada de Copal (in range)
Estero Golfo de San Miguel (in range)
Cienega de Matsugarati (in range)
Cerre Cerrezuela – Rio Grande (in range)
Estero Bahia de Muertos (in range)
Playa de la Barqueta Agricola (5,935 ha) (in range)
Estero Río Fonseca (in range)
Estero Ríos Tabasara – Bubi (in range)
Estero Golfo de Montijo Recreation Area (89,452 ha) (in range)
Palo Seco Protection Forest (244,000 ha) (in range)
Serranias de Majé (in range)
Cayo Swan (in range)
Cayo Tigre (in range)
Lagunas del Volcán (142 ha) (in range)
Cerro Gaital (in range)
Cerro Chame (in range)
Picachos de Ola (in range)
Gran Valera de Chorcha (in range)
Isla Barro Colorado Natural Monument (5,600 ha) (Carpenter 1965)
Isla de Majé Scientific Reserve (1,433 ha) (in range)
Kunayala Private Reserve (2,357 ha) (in range)
Golfo de Chiriquí National Park (14,740 ha) (in range)
Lago Gatún Recreation Area (348 ha) (in range)
Metropolitano Natural Park (265 ha) (in range)
Alto de Darien Protection Forest (201,000 ha) (in range)
San San Pond Sak (16,125 ha) (in range)
Punta Patiño (13,805 ha) (in range)
Los Pozos de Calobre(3.5 ha) (in range)
El Salto de Las Palmas (348 ha) (in range)
Camiño de Cruces National Park (4,000 ha) (in range)
Filo del Tallo (in range)
Maski Private Reserve (544 ha) (in range)
San Blas Reserve (141,000 ha) (in range)
Alouatta palliata coibensis
Isla Coiba National Park and Jicarón (270,125 ha) (Milton and Mittermeier 1977)
Alouatta palliata trabeata
Cerro Hoya National Park (32,557 ha) (Rowe 2000; Matamoros and Seal 2001).
It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.
Anthony, H. E. 1916. Panama mammals collected in 1914-1915. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 35: 357-375.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.
Baumgarten, A. 2006. The dsitribution and biogeography of Central American howling monkeys (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata). Master's Thesis, Louisiana State University.
Baumgarten, A. and Williamson, B. G. 2007. The distributions of howling monkeys (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata) in southeastern Mexico and Central America. Primates 48: 310-315.
Burt, W. H. and Stirton, R. A. 1961. The mammals of El Salvador. Miscellaneous Publication of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 117: 1-69.
Campbell, A. F. and Sussman, R. W. 1994. The value of radio tracking in the study of neotropical rain forest monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 32(4): 291-301.
Carpenter, C. R. 1965. The howlers of Barro Colorado Island. In: I. DeVore (ed.), Primate Behavior. Field studies of Monkeys and Apes, pp. 250-291. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, USA.
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|Citation:||Cuarón, A.D., Shedden, A., Rodríguez-Luna, E., de Grammont, P.C., Link, A., Palacios, E., Morales, A. & Cortés-Ortiz, L. 2008. Alouatta palliata. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 December 2013.|
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