|Scientific Name:||Chiropotes satanas|
|Species Authority:||(Hoffmannsegg, 1807)|
Chiropotes satanas subspecies satanas (Hoffmannsegg, 1807)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hershkovitz (1985) revised the genus Chiropotes and recognized two species, Chiropotes albinasus and Chiropotes satanas, the second containing three subspecies (Chiropotes s. satanas, Chiropotes s. chiropotes and Chiropotes s. utahicki). Based on results of analyses of morphological, morphometric and molecular data, Silva Jr. and Figueiredo (2002) raised the three subspecies to species level, and divided the populations occurring on either side of the rio Branco into two distinct taxa. They proposed a taxonomic arrangement with five species: Chiropotes albinasus, Chiropotes satanas, Chiropotes utahickae, Chiropotes chiropotes and Chiropotes sagulatus Traill, 1821, the latter representing the eastern form of C. chiropotes, which occurs to the east of the rio Branco, in Brazil, Suriname and the Guianas.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2c+3c ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Veiga, L.M., Silva Jr., J.S., Ferrari, S.F. & Rylands, A.B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Critically Endangered as there is reason to believe the species has declined by at least 80% over the past 30 years (three generations) due primarily to habitat loss, which has been particularly severe east of the Rio Tocantins as a result of agriculture and cattle ranching. This trend is likely to continue into the next 30 years, and may be compounded by hunting.
|Range Description:||Endemic to eastern Amazonia in Brazil, this species has a restricted range between the right bank of the rio Tocantins and the eastern limits of the Amazon forest in the Brazilian states of Pará and Maranhão. Although it resides in terra firme forests, its distribution extends as far as the coastal (mangrove) forests and forested areas in the transitional zone between Amazon Forest and Cerrado (savanna) at the southern and eastern borders of its distribution. The most southerly record is at -06 31' 59'' -47 27'00'' in Estreito, Maranhão State (Hershkovitz 1985; Silva Jr. 1991; Lopes 1993).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||From studies using standardized line transects, population densities and sightings/10 km, have been calculated for the a number of areas (see table 1). Density varies depending on the differing influences of hunting pressure and habitat disturbance, but appears to be greater in smaller fragments with lower levels of hunting pressure.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Endemic to the fluvial plain of eastern Amazonia, where predominantly found at low altitudes in tall terra firme rain forests; it has also been observed in secondary forests and on rare occasions in mangroves (Silva Jr. 1991; Lopes 1993). Recent field studies (Ferrari et al. 1999b; Port-Carvalho and Ferrari 2002; Santo 2002; Silva 2003; Veiga 2006) have demonstrated that this taxon is able to survive and reproduce (in the absence of hunting), in fragments much smaller than previously thought possible. Small groups have been found in fragments and on islands of less than 20 ha, some of which have been isolated for over 20 years. They are relatively abundant in tracts of forest of between 100 and 1,000 ha, suggesting a degree of tolerance to anthropogenic habitat disturbance and behavioural flexibility in the face of change. Groups with 4 to 39 individuals have been recorded in fragmented habitats (Ferrari et al. 1999; Port-Carvalho and Ferrari 2002, 2004; Santos 2002; Silva 2003; Veiga 2006).
The species is a highly frugivorous and is a specialist seed predator: immature seeds can represent as much as 90% of their diet in certain months. Other important plant resources are fruit pulp and flowers. Small quantities of pith, shoots and young leaves are also eaten, as well as a range of arthropods including caterpillars, termites, ants and spiders (Veiga and Ferrari 2006). One means by which some groups coped with extreme fragmentation is by increasing the proportion of flowers and non-reproductive plant parts in the diet (Santos 2002; Silva 2003; Veiga 2006). The home range of a group (39 members) residing in a forest fragment (1,300 ha) over a period of 12 months was 98.6 ha (Veiga 2006). No studies have been undertaken in areas of continuous forest, but it is likely that groups would range over much larger areas, probably covering several hundred hectares; a group of Chiropotes albinasus was recorded using an area in excess of 1,000 ha over an 11-month period (Pinto 2008).
The greatest risks for the future survival of the Black Bearded Saki are the loss and fragmentation of its habitat and hunting pressure. It has the smallest range of the genus, which coincides with the most densely populated part of Brazilian Amazonia, a region with a long tradition of colonization, and which now has deforestation levels that begin to rival those of the Atlantic Forest. Over the last few decades, the establishment of highways, implantation of the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam, logging, and agricultural and ranching activities have lead to widespread devastation of forested areas in this region. The proliferation of secondary roads has further exacerbated this process. Chiropotes satanas is already locally extinct in a large part of its original range and what remains is extremely fragmented and under constant deforestation pressure.
Despite not being particularly lucrative or an easy target, this species is also hunted for its meat and fur. Habitat fragmentation processes are probably increasing hunting pressure on this species by providing easier access and through the loss of preferred game. Although this species is more tolerant of habitat fragmentation than previously thought, this should not be considered a motive for complacency with regard to the importance of the implementation of conservation measures, particularly the establishment and adequate control of protected areas. In addition, small populations living in isolated fragments with few opportunities for dispersal are probably not genetically viable in the long-term. There is an obvious need for some management of metapopulations.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.
The primary federal protected area within this region is the Gurupi Biological Reserve (REBIO Gurupi) in Maranhão State (original area 341,650 ha). Together with contiguous Amerindian reservations, it forms a nucleus of continuous forest covering an estimated one million hectares. Despite its potential importance for the conservation of Chiropotes satanas (and the threatened Cebus kaapori), this area suffers intense pressure from local ranchers, timber companies and illegal land settlers, and almost one-third of the Gurupi Reserve's forest has already been lost.
The following state protected areas occur within the range of this species, although their presence within all these areas has not been confirmed: Pará state - APA Lago de Tucuruí - margem direita (568,667 ha); Maranhão state - APA do Maracanã (18,131 ha), APA da Baixada Maranhense (1,775,035 ha), APA das Reentrâncias Maranhenses (2,680,911 ha), APA Upaon-Açu/Miritiba/Alto Preguiça (1,535,310). They may also occur in the following extractive and forest reserves (Maranhão): RESEX do Ciriaco (7,550 ha), RESEX do Quilombo do Frechal (9,542 ha) RESEX Mata Grande (10,450 ha), and Reserva Florestal de Buriticupu (9,454 ha) (Veiga et al. in press).
The Primate Protection Centre (Centro de Proteção de Primatas Brasileiros: ICM/CPB), of the Federal Environmental Protection Institute (Instituto Chico Mendes), supports and coordinates primate conservation programmes throughout Brazil. ICM/CPB together with local has been working towards the resolution of some of the key problems in the REBIO Gurupi but a large-scale operation and continuous monitoring are required to ensure its effective protection. An international committee (Comitê Internacional para Conservação e Manejo dos Primatas Amazônicos) was established by the Chico Mendes Institute (ICM) in conjunction with the the CPB to discuss and define the conservation of Amazonian primate taxa, and together with members of the Pitheciine Action Group (PAG) are developing a Conservation Action Plan for the Black Bearded Saki.
Surveys are needed to identify remaining populations both in protected reserves and other areas. The CPB implemented "Projeto Kaapori" for the Cebus kaapori and have undertaken surveys and conducted interviews with local people in the central-north, north and west of Maranhão. They collected data on all primate species including C. satanas, which will be used in the development of the Action Plan. Given the current situation of the REBIO Gurupi and the lack of other federal protected areas, both privately owned reserves and Amerindian reservations are becoming increasingly important for the long-term conservation of Chiropotes satanas (Ferrari et al. 1999). Research on the effects of fragmentation on isolated populations is also key if we are to be able to evaluate the long-term chances of survival and manage the remaining populations. As the range of C. satanas coincides largely with that of Cebus kaapori, joint research and conservative initiatives can be planned to benefit both species.
Bonvicino, C. R., Boubli, J. P., Otazú, I. B., Almeida, F. C., Nascimento, F. F., Coura, J. R. and Seuánez, H. N. 2003. Morphologic, karyotypic, and molecular evidence of a new form of Chiropotes (primates, pitheciinae). American Journal o f Primatology 61(3): 123-133.
Ferrari, S., Emidio-Silva, C., Lopes, M. and Bobadilla, U. 1999. Bearded sakis in south-eastern Amazonia–back from the brink? Oryx 33(4).
Ferrari, S. F., da Silva, S. S. B., Pereira, A. P., Carvalho, M., Santos, R. R. and Veiga, L. M. 2004. Rethinking the ecology of eastern Amazonian bearded sakis (Chiropotes satanas). Resumos do XXth Congress of the International Primatological Society. Folia Primatologica 75(1): 261.
Ford, S. M. and Davis, L. C. 1992. Systematics and body size: Implications for feeding adaptation in New World monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 88: 415-468.
Hershkovitz, P. 1985. A preliminary taxonomy review of the south american bearded saki monkeys genus Chiropotes (Cebidae: Platyrrhini), with the description of a new species. Fieldiana: Zoology 27: 1-46.
Johns, A. D. and Ayres, J. M. 1987. Southern bearded sakis beyond the brink. Oryx 21: 164-167.
Lopes, M. A. 1993. Conservação do Cuxiú-preto, Chiropotes satanas satanas (Cebidae: Primates) e de outros Mamíferos na Amazônia Oriental. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Pará.
Pinto, L. P. 2008. Ecologia alimentar do cuxiú-de-nariz-vermelho Chiropotes albinasus (Primates: pitheciidae) na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, PA. Tese de doutorado, Universidade Estadual de Campinas.
Port-Carvalho, M and Ferrari, S. F. 2002. Estimativas da abundância de cuxiú-preto (Chiropotes satanas satanas) e outros mamíferos não-voadores em fragmentos antrópicos de floresta da região Tocantina, Amazônia oriental. XXIVº Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, 2002, Itajaí, SC, Editora e Gráfica Berger, v. único: 531-532.
Santos, R. R. 2002. Ecologia de cuxiús (Chiropotes satanas) na Amazônia Oriental: Perspectivas para a conservação de populações fragmentadas. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Pará.
Silva Jr., J. S. 1991. Distribuição geográfica do cuxiú-preto (Chiropotes satanas satanas Hoffmansegg. 1807) na Amazônia maranhense (Cebidae: Primates). In: A.B. Rylands and A.T. Bernardes (eds), A Primatologia no Brasil – 3, pp. 275-284. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Silva Jr., J. S. and Figueiredo, W. M. B. 2002. Revisão sistemática dos cuxiús, gênero Chiropotes Lesson, 1840 (Primates Pithecidae). Livro de Resumos do XO. Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Amazônia - A Última Fronteira: 21. Belém do Pará, Brazil.
Silva Jr., J. S., Queiroz, H. L. and Fernandes, M. E. B. 1992. Primatas do Maranhão: dados preliminares (Primates: Platyrrhini). XIX Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia: 173. Belém, Brazil.
Silva, S. S. B. 2003. Comportamento Alimentar do cuxiú-preto (Chiropotes satanas) na área de influência do reservatório da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí–Pará. Dissertação de Mestrado, Museu Paraense Emílio Goéldi e Universidade Federal do Pará.
Veiga, L. M. 2006. Ecologia e comportamento do cuxiú-preto (Chiropotes satanas) na paisagem fragmentada da Amazônia oriental. Tese de doutorado, Universidade Federal do Pará, Programa de Pós-graduação em Teoria e Pesquisa do Comportamento.
Veiga, L. M. and Ferrari, S. F. 2006. Predation of arthropods by southern bearded sakis (Chiropotes satanas) in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. American Journal of Primatology 68: 209-215.
Veiga, L. M., Silva Jr., J. S. and Lopes, M. A. 2008. Cuxiú-preto, Chiropotes satanas Hoffmannsegg, 1807. In: A. B. M. Machado G. M. Drummond and A. P. Paglia (eds), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção, pp. 776-778. Fundação Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, Brail.
|Citation:||Veiga, L.M., Silva Jr., J.S., Ferrari, S.F. & Rylands, A.B. 2008. Chiropotes satanas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 July 2015.|