|Scientific Name:||Saguinus fuscicollis (Spix, 1823)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The taxonomy of Saguinus fuscicollis is based on Hershkovitz (1977; see also Cheverud and Moore 1990), but there are some suggested modifications. In a molecular genetic study of the phylogeny of the genus, Cropp et al. (1999) found that the form fuscus was closer to S. nigricollis than to S. fuscicollis and gave it species status. Saguinus f. melanoleucus and S. f. crandalli were listed as subspecies of S. melanoleucus by Coimbra-Filho (1990) and Groves (2001, 2005), although Tagliaro et al. (2005) found that differences between melanoleucus and weddelli were no larger than among the weddelli specimens. Saguinus f. acrensis, listed by Hershkovitz (1977), is not considered a valid form but a hybrid S. f. fuscicollis × S. f. melanoleucus from the upper Rio Juruá, following Peres et al. (1996). Rylands et al. (1993) argued that S. f. melanoleucus should be considered a species distinct from S. fuscicollis. This arrangement was adopted by Groves (2001, 2005), with the form crandalli (of unknown provenance) as a subspecies. The form crandalli may well also be a hybrid.
Hershkovitz (1977) listed the form tripartitus as a subspecies of S. fuscicollis, but Thorington (1988) argued for its species' status due to its supposed sympatry with S. f. lagonotus. Rylands et al. (1993, 2000) and Groves (2001) listed it as a species, but a re-evaluation of the evidence for its distribution indicates that both Hershkovitz (1977) and Thorington (1988) may have been wrong (Heymann 2000; Rylands and Heymann in prep.), and sympatry between S. f. lagonotus and S. tripartitus has yet to be confirmed. M.G.M. van Roosmalen recorded a new form of saddleback tamarin in the interfluvium of the rios Madeira and Purus; a subspecies bounded to the south by the Rio Ipixuna and to the north by the várzeas of the Rio Solimões (van Roosmalen 2003; described 16 August 2003).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern as the species is widespread, common, and there are no major threats resulting in any significant population decline.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||There are 10 recognized subspecies:|
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollis (Brazil, Peru)
Spix’s Saddleback Tamarin occurs to the south of the Rio Solimões in Brazil, between the Rio Javarí in the west, east through the Rio Jutaí basin to the Rio Juruá (left bank) (Hershkovitz 1977, Peres 1993a). Hodun et al. (1981, see also Soini 1990a,b; Aquino and Encarnación 1994) also found it in Peru, west of the Río Yavarí as far as the Río Tapiche, an eastern tributary of the Río Ucayali, and extending north from there as far as the Río Blanco (left or western bank), where it meets the range of S. f. nigrifrons (right, eastern bank of Río Blanco). S. f. illigeri occurs west of the Río Tapiche (left bank), and S. f. fuscicollis is replaced by S. f. nigrifrons again at the headwaters of the Río Tapiche. In the south, it is replaced by S. f. weddelli on the uppermost reaches of the Rios Javarí and Juruá near the frontier with Peru (see Aquino and Encarnación 1994; Peres 1993a; Peres et al. 1996). The altitudinal range is 75–150 m above sea level (Hershkovitz 1977). S. f. fuscicollis is sympatric with Spix’s Moustached Tamarin, S. m. mystax, throughout its geographic distribution.
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus (Brazil, Colombia)
Lesson’s Saddle-back Tamarin is the most northerly known subspecies of the Saddleback Tamarin. It occurs in the lowland forests north of the Rio Solimões, ranging north-west between the Rio Japurá-Caquetá and Içá-Putumayo in Brazil and Colombia (Hershkovitz 1968). In Brazil, the easternmost locality known for S. f. fuscus is the Rio Tonantins, a north bank tributary of the Rio Solimões (Hershkovitz 1977). According to Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976), in Colombia S. f. fuscus also extends north of the middle Río Caquetá, west of the Río Yarí (a northern tributary), through the basin of the Rio Caguán, and lower parts of the Río Orteguaza, west to the Andean foothills to an altitude of 500 m above sea level. It extends north to the right bank of the Río Guayabero and possibly east to the region of around San José de Guaviare on the southern bank of the Río Guaviare, about 1 hour by boat downstream from the confluence of the Ríos Guayabero and Ariari, to the headwaters of the Ríos Vaupés and Apaporis in the southern department of Meta (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976). To the east from there it is replaced by Saguinus inustus (see Defler 1994, 2004). On the upper Río Putumayo it follows the left (north) bank of the Río Sucumbíos (Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1989). Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976, see also Defler 1994) indicated that the form found north of the Río Caquetá, to the region of San José de Guaviare is possibly not S. f. fuscus but a subspecies which has yet to be described. It is not known if S. f. fuscus or some undescribed form of S. fuscicollis occurs between the Riós Apaporis and Caquetá, along the left (east) bank of the Río Yarí (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976). In this region, S. inustus is believed to be limited to the north (left) bank of the Río Apaporis. Regarding the occurrence of S. f. fuscus to the north of the Río Caquetá, it should be noted that Hershkovitz (1977, 1982) restricted its range to the basin of the Río Orteguaza and the right bank of the Río Caguán.
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi (Brazil)
Although based only on its type locality at the mouth of the Lago de Tefé, south bank of the Río Solimões, and a specimen from Ayapuá, left bank of the Rio Purus (Napier 1976), more recent evidence has confirmed the distribution of S. f. avilapiresi proposed by Hershkovitz (1977) as extending along the south of the Rio Solimões between the Rios Juruá and Purus, including the basins of the Rios Urucu and Coarí, and probably the Río Tefé. Johns (1985, 1986) recorded S. f. avilapiresi at his study site on the Lago de Tefé, left bank of the Rio Tefé, although it was very uncommon there, and Peres (1991) recorded the subspecies from Jaraqui, on the right (east) bank of the Rio Juruá. These records confirm the distribution proposed by Hershkovitz (1977). The southern limits are not known but possibly in the region of the north bank of the Rio Tapauá, an affluent of the Rio Purus, but Saddleback Tamarins have not been recorded for this region.
Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai (Brazil?, Peru)?
The distribution of this subspecies is not known with certainty. Through some rather complicated detective work, as well as indications concerning its affinities in pelage colour and patterns, Hershkovitz (1968) concluded that the most likely provenance of this distinct Saddleback Tamarin is the upper Rio Purus in Brazil. Hershkovitz (1968, 1977, p.636) placed it tentatively in the upper Rio Purus region, south of the Rio Tapauá to the Rio Pauiní, both left bank tributaries of the Rio Purus. However, following the discovery of S. f. primitivus, described by Hershkovitz (1977) in an addendum and evidently occupying this region, he placed it, equally tentatively, north of the Rio Tapauá, where no Saddleback Tamarins have recorded to date (Hershkovitz 1977, p. 622). This is to the south of the known geographic range of S. f. avilapiresi, at the headwaters of the Rio Coarí, and the Rio Repartimento, a right bank tributary of the Rio Tefé.
Van Roosmalen (5 August 2003) reported locating S. fuscicollis cruzlimai in the wild, and informed that Hershkovitz (1977) had been correct in believing that it occurred between the Rios Pauiní and Tapauá, west of the Rio Purus. It was observed by T. van Roosmalen on 21 June 2002, on the west bank of the Rio Purus, opposite the mouth of the Rio Sepatini (Van Roosmalen, 16 August, 2003).
Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys (Peru)
This subspecies is confined to north-central Peru, from San Martin, through Huanaco and Pasco to the Río Perene, northern Juno, east to the río Ucayali in Loreto to as far north as the Río Pisqui (Hershkovitz 1977). To the west, it is limited by the Andes, probably not occurring above altitudes of about 900-1,000 m (Hershkovitz 1977). Freese et al. (1982) observed no primate species at Moyobamba, in the upper Mayo Forest Reserve, at an altitude of 1,000 m above sea level. S. fuscicollis occurs in the Panguana Biological Station, on the left (south) bank of the Río Yuyapichis, a tributary of the Río Pachitea, in Department of Pasco, about 150 km south of Pucallpa, in the eastern central part of Peru (9º37'S, 74º56'W) (Hutterer et al. 1995), and is presumably S. f. leucogenys.
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons (Peru)
This subspecies occurs in Peru, between the Ríos Amazonas and Yavarí, and along the right bank of the Río Ucayali as far as the Río Blanco (Hodun et al. 1981; Soini 1990a; Aquino and Encarnación 1994). Upstream of the Río Ucayali along both sides of the river (to the south of the Rio Blanco), it is replaced by Illiger’s Saddleback Tamarin, S. f. illigeri. Strangely, S. f. nigrifrons appears again on the the right (east) bank of the Río Ucayali at the headwaters of the Río Tapiche, a left bank tributary of the Rio Blanco, probably extending east as far as the Río Yavarí, on the border with Brazil. This southern population is based on a specimen collected by R. W. Hendee in the Cerro Azul, Contamana, in 1927 (Hershkovitz 1977). The southern limit is given by Hershkovitz (1977) and Aquino and Encarnación (1994) as the right bank of the Río Ucayali across the river from Pucallpa. There are, therefore, two disjunct populations of S. f. nigrifrons, separated by S. f. illigeri (between the Ríos Ucayali and Tapiche/Blanco), and S. f. fuscicollis which crossed the Río Yavarí from the east to occupy the left bank of the Río Blanco (as far as the mouth of the Río Tapiche) and the right bank of the Río Tapiche (Soini 1990a,b).
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus (Ecuador, Peru)
Saguinus. f. lagonotus occurs between the Ríos Napo and Marañón, west to the Andes in Peru and eastern Ecuador (Hershkovitz 1968, 1977). In Peru, it occurs north of the Río Marañón as far west as the Río Chinchipe along the foothills of the Cordillera del Condor (Aquino and Encarnación 1994). Hodun et al. (1981) confirmed its presence on the left bank of the Río Marañón, and Aquino and Encarnación (1996) recorded it from the right bank of the Rio Napo from Pantoja (frontier with Ecuador) to its confluence with the Rio Amazonas. S. f. lagonotus is in this case sympatric with S. tripartitus between the Ríos Curaray and Napo in Ecuador (see Albúja 1994; Tirira 2007). Thorington (1988) argued that Hershkovitz’s (1977) restriction of S. f. lagonotus to the right bank of the Río Napo is not necessarily valid and that it may extend north of the river, where it would be sympatric with (but not necessarily occurring in the same habitats) as S. tripartitus. For this reason, Thorington (1988) regarded S. tripartitus to be a full species, whereas Hershkovitz (1977) regards it as subspecific to S. fuscicollis. Aquino and Encarnación (1996) were unable to provide any evidence for the presence of S. f. lagonotus on the north (left) bank of the Río Napo in Peru. The only locality where it is known to extend north of the Napo is in Ecuador at La Coca, mouth of the Río Coca, a northern tributary (Hershkovitz 1977). The altitudinal range is from 100 m to approximately 1,200 m in the far west of its range (Hershkovitz 1977). Tirira (2007) gives and altitudinal range of 200 m to 1,160 m above sea level in Ecuador.
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri (Peru)
This subspecies occurs in Peru, between the Ríos Huallaga and Ucayali, south of the Río Marañon (Hershkovitz 1977). S. f. illigeri also extends east of the Río Ucayali, from the mouth of the Río Blanco and along the left bank of the Río Tapiche (Hodun et al. 1981, Soini 1990a,b; Aquino and Encarnación 1994). How far south it occurs, east of the Río Ucayali, is not clearly known, although Hershkovitz (1977) indicated that it is limited to the Ríos Caxiabatay or Pisqui, west of the Río Ucayali, in the region of Contamana. Aquino and Encarnación (1994) indicated that it occurs south to about 6º10'S, north of Hershkovitz’s projection, although in their distribution map (p.108) they extended the range to nearly 9ºS.
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru)
Saguinus f. weddelli has the widest distribution of the S. fuscicollis subspecies. It ranges from southern Peru, from the Río Abujao (east tributary of the Río Ucayali), south along both banks of the Río Ucayali east of the Andes, east of the Río Apurimac, and along the upper reaches of such rivers as the Apurimac, Inambari, Urubamaba and Tambopata, to the Rios Madeira and Beni or Mamoré in Bolivia. It extends north in Brazil between the Rios Purus and Madeira in Acre and Amazonas and part of Rondônia, but is known only as far north as the Rio Pixuna (Hershkovitz 1977). It crosses the upper Rio Madeira to its right bank in Rondônia in the region of the Rio Jamarí, south of the Rio Ji-paraná, forming mixed-species groups there with Mico cf. emiliae (see Vivo 1985; Lopes and Ferrari 1994). Ferrari et al. (1995) also recorded S. f. weddelli (but not Mico cf. emiliae) from the Guajará-Mirim State Park in Rondônia, just north of the Rio Guaporé.
Heltne et al. (1976) and Izawa and Bejarano (1981) believed it to be the only tamarin occurring south of the Río Madre de Dios, although judging from the distribution map supplied by Aquino and Encarnación (1994) it would seem that the Rio Madidi, south of the Río Madre de Dios might be the southern limit for the Bearded Emperor Tamarin, S. i. subgrisescens. The southern limit to its range is given by Hershkovitz (1977) as the upper Río Mamoré in Bolivia (about 16ºS), although he provided no evidence for its occurrence east of the Rio Beni. In Peru, it follows the Andean foothills extending as far south as the upper reaches of such rivers as the Apurimac. Heltne et al. (1976) observed it at Ixiamas, Bolivia (13° 46' S, west of the Río Beni) where it was found to be less common than other primates in the area, and they indicated that this locality may be near to the southern limit of its range.
Saguinus fuscicollis primitivus (Brazil)
Saguinus f. primitivus is known from Pauiní, below the mouth of the Rio Pauiní on the Rio Purus, and from an unspecified locality on the Rio Juruá. Hershkovitz (1977) suggested that the geographic range extends from north (left) bank of the Rio Pauiní, along the left (east) bank of the Rio Purus, north to the Rio Tapauá (right or south bank). It extends west between the Rios Pauiní and Tapauá to the right bank of the Rio Juruá, and Rio Tarauacá (Hershkovitz 1977). Whether Saddleback Tamarins occur on the left (north) bank of the Rio Tapauá is not known. Cruz Lima’s Saddleback Tamarin, S. f. cruzlimai, may occur there or, alternatively, the Rio Tapauá may mark the southern limit to the range of S. f. avilapiresi (Hershkovitz 1977).
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia); Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Recorded densities of saddleback tamarins include the following: |
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresii Igarapé Jaraqui 31.5 individuals/km² (Peres 1997)
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresii Vai Quem Quer 30.2 individuals/km² (Peres 1997)
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri 15.0 individuals/km² (Freese et al. 1982)
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus 4.8-29.4 individuals/km² (Freese et al. 1982)
Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys 2.4-13.8 individuals/km² (Freese et al. 1982)
Saguinus fuscicillos nigrifrons 23.0 individuals/km² (Soini 1987)
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli 16.0 individuals/km² (Terborgh 1983)
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli 12.8-20.8 individuals/km² (Yoneda 1981)
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollisi Barro Vermelho 20.0 individuals/km² (Peres 1997)
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollisi Fortuna 29.7 individuals/km² (Peres 1997)
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollisi Vira Volta 28.1 individuals/km² (Peres 1997)
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollisi Riozinho 24.4 individuals/km² (Peres 1997)
The population density of Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi at Urucu, Amazonas, was very low: 1.78 groups/km² or 9.8 individuals/km² -- below the lowest values reported for any site where mixed species groups of tamarins have been studied. Peres (1990, 1991) also surveyed two other sites where S. f. avilapiresi and S . mystax pileatus occur. The density of S. f. avilapiresi at the Igarapé Açu, downstream of his study site on the left bank of the Rio Urucu, was 8.9 individuals/km² (mean group size 5.0), and at a site denominated SUC, on the right bank of the Rio Tefé, 10 individuals/km² (mean group size 4). Peres (1993b) attributed these low densities to a lack of heterogeneity of successional and climax forest, along with nutrient-poor soils, strong seasonality in ripe fruit production, lack of successional forest, and a weak staggering of fruiting peaks between different habitats.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The Saddleback Tamarin occurs in Amazonian lowland and lower montane rain forests, seasonally flooded forest, remnant forests or fringe patches and secondary forest (Snowdon and Soini 1988). Altitude ranges from 100 m to 1,200 m above sea level (Snowdon and Soini 1988; Tirira 2007).|
Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet. The dentition of the tamarins (Saguinus and Leontopithecus) does not provide for gouging and they eat gums only when readily available.
Tamarins live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals, but usually 2-8. Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. Saguinus fuscicollis groups defend home ranges of 16-120 ha (see Garber 1993), the size depending on seasonality, availability and distribution of foods and second-growth patches.
Saddleback Tamarins travel and spend most of their time in the lower layers and understorey of the forest up to 10 m above the ground (Snowdon and Soini 1988). Saddleback Tamarins tend to form mixed-species groups with the larger, sympatric moustached tamarins: Saguinus mystax, Saguinus labiatus, and Saguinus imperator (see Yoneda 1981; Buchanan-Smith 1990; Peres 1992a,b, 1993c; Hardie 1998; Heymann and Buchanan-Smith 2000). The moustached tamarins trravel higher on the forest, spending more time in the lower and middle canopy, above 10 m. In Bolivia, they also travel with Callimico goeldii (Pook and Pook 1982; Buchanan-Smith 1990, 1991a; Porter 2001, 2007).
Peres (1991) observed S. f. avilapiresi in stable groups of 5-8 individuals, always, during the day, associated with somewhat larger groups of 8-11 Saguinus mystax pileatus. Home range sizes were found to be larger than any previously recorded for the genus, estimated at 145 ha.
Tamarins are monomorphic - exhibiting only minor differences in body and canine size.
Mean adult male body weight for:
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons 412.8 ±25.7 g (range 365.0-482.5 g, n=33) (Garber and Teaford 1986)
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons 354 g (n=39) (Soini and Cóppula 1981)
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli 405 g (n=4) (Yoneda 1981)
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri 320 g (n = about 13) (Soini and Cóppula 1981)
Mean adult body weight for:
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli 315 g (n=7 males and one female) (Ferrari and Martins 1992)
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus 330-560 g (Tirira 2007).
There are no major threats to this species.
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollis
The status of Spix’s Saddle-back Tamarin is unknown in Brazil, but Soini et al. (1989) and Aquino and Encarnación (1994) consider that all the Peruvian subspecies of the Saddleback Tamarin are common.
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus
Moynihan (1976b) found the distribution of S. f. fuscus to be patchy but reported it common in many areas between the Ríos Caquetá and Putumayo in Colombia. Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) and Hernández-Camacho and Defler (1989) concluded that, although hunted to some extent both for food and for pets, it is not threatened. Its status in Brazil is unknown.
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi
Status unknown, but there is no evident reason to believe it is vulnerable or threatened.
Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai
The conservation status of S. f. cruzlimai is unknown, but if it occurs north of the Rio Tapuauá, in the Rio Purus basin, it is probably not under threat, the region being isolated and little exposed to human activities.
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri
Soini et al. (1989) and Aquino and Encarnación (1994) reported it to be common along with the other Peruvian subspecies of the Saddleback Tamarin. It adapts quite well to areas with human disturbance, often seen visiting plantations of bananas and other cultivated fruits. They are rarely hunted in areas where the human population density is low, and threats to their survival arise only when forests are completely eliminated or fragmented over wide areas for cattle pasture and agriculture.
Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys
Freese et al. (1982) reported that S. fuscicollis (presumably S. f. leucogenys) was common in their Pucallpa survey area to the west of the Río Ucayali. Soini et al. (1989) and Aquino and Encarnación (1994) reported it as common.
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons
Soini et al. (1989) and Aquino and Encarnación (1994) reported it to be common.
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus
Freese et al. (1982) reported that S. f. lagonotus was one of the most frequently encountered primates on the Río Nanay, a left bank tributary of the Río Amazonas a short distance above the Río Napo (see also Mittermeier et al. 1978). Soini et al. (1989) regarded it as common.
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli
Brown and Rumiz (1986) reported it common in Bolivia. Izawa and Bejarano (1981) found it to be the most common of the callitrichids in a large area of the Pando region, north-west Bolivia, between the Ríos Acre and Madre de Dios.
Saguinus fuscicollis primitivus
Endemic to the Brazilian Amazon, it is completely unknown in terms of its ecology, behaviour and conservation status.
It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
This species occurs, or may occur, in numerous protected areas:
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollis
Jutaí-Solimões Ecological Reserve (284,285 ha), within range, unconfirmed
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus
Juamí-Japurá Ecological Station (745,830 ha), within supposed range, unconfirmed
Mamirauá State Ecological Station (1,124,000 ha) within supposed range, unconfirmed
La Paya National Natural Park (422,000 ha) (Defler 1994)
Cahuinarí National Natural Park (575,000 ha), possible, unconfirmed (Defler 1994)
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi
Abufarí Biological Reserve (288,000 ha), possibly on left bank of Rio Purus
Lago Ayapuá State Environment Protection Area (610,000 ha)
Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri
Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (1,478,800 ha) (Soini et al. (1989)
Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys
Tingo Maria National Park (18,000 ha) (Aquino and Encarnación 1994)
Abiseo National Park, possibly above altitudinal range
Yanachaga Chemillén National Park (122,000 ha) (Aquino and Encarnación 1994)
Alto Mayo Protection Forest (182,000 ha), probably the low-lying parts.
Panguana Biological Station (200 ha), south of its range (Hutterer et al. 1995)
Yanesha Communal Reserve (34,744 ha), possible, within range
San Matias-San Carlos Protection Forest (145,818 ha), possible, within range
Pui-pui Protection Forest (60,000 ha), possible, within range
It has not been recorded for the Río Abiseo National Park probably due to the high altitude.
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus
Yasuní National Park (982,300 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Sumaco-Napo Galeras National Park (Tirira 2007)
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli
Manuripi National Reserve (1,844,375 ha)
Abufarí Biological Reserve (288,000 ha)
Rio Acre Ecological Station (77,500 ha)
Cuniã State Environmental Protection Area (104,000 ha)
Samuel State Ecological Station (Ferrari et al. 1995)
Serra dos Três Irmãos State Park (99,813 ha) (Ferrari et al, 1996a)
Guajará-Mirim State Park (258,000 ha) (Ferrari et al. 1995)
Pimenta Bueno Municipal Park (532 ha) (Ferrari et al. 1996b)
Manu National Park (1,532,806 ha)
Tambopata Natural Wildlife Reserve (5,500 ha).
Saguinus fuscicollis primitivus
Albúja, L. 1994. Nuevos registros de Saguinus tripartitus en la Amazonia ecuatoriana. Neotropical Primates 2(2): 8-10.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.
Brown, A. D. and Rumiz, D. I. 1986. Distribucion de los primates en Bolivia. In: M. T. de Mello (ed.), A Primatologia no Brasil, pp. 335-363. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasília, Brazil.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1990. Polyspecific association of two tamarin species, Saguinus labiatus and Saguinus fuscicollis, in Bolivia. American Journal of Primatology 22(3): 205-214.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1991. Field observations of Goeldi’s monkey, Callimico goeldii, in northern Bolivia. Folia Primatologica 57: 102-105.
Cheverud, J. M. and Moore, A. J. 1990. Subspecific variation in the saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis). American Journal of Primatology 21: 1-15.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1990. Sistemática, distribuição geográfica e situação atual dos símios brasileiros (Platyrrhini, Primates). Revista Brasiliera de Biologia 50: 1063-1079.
Cropp, S. J., Larson, A. and Cheverud, J. M. 1999. Historical biogeography of tamarins, genus Saguinus: The molecular phylogenetic evidence. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 108: 65-89.
Defler, T. R. 1989. The status and some ecology of primates in the Colombian Amazon. Primate Conservation 10: 51-56.
Defler, T.R. 1994. La conservación de primates en Colombia. Trianea 5: 255-287.
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.
Ferrari, S. F. and Martins, E. S. 1992. Gummivory and gut morphology in two sympatric callitrichids (Callithrix emiliae and Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli) from western Brazilian Amazonia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 88: 97–103.
Ferrari, S. F., Cruz Neto, E. H. , Iwanaga, S., Corrêa, K. M. and Ramos, P. C. S. 1996. An unusual primate community at the Estação Ecológica dos Três Irmãos, Rondônia, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 4(2): 55-56.
Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S. and da Silva, J. L. 1996. Platyrrhines in Pimenta Bueno, Rondônia, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 4(4): 151-153.
Ferrari, S. F., Lopes, M. A., Cruz Neto, E. H. da, Silveira, M. A. E. S., Ramos, E. M., Ramos, P. C. S., Tourinho, D. M. and Magalhães, N. F. A. 1995. Primates and conservation in the Guajará-Mirim State Park, Rondônia, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 3(3): 81-82.
Freese, C., Heltne, P. G., Castro, R. and Whitesides, G. 1982. Patterns and determinants of monkey densities in Peru and Bolivia, with notes on distributions. International Journal of Primatology 3: 53-90.
Garber, P. A. 1993. Feeding ecology and behaviour of the genus Saguinus. In: A. B. Rylands (ed.), Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Ecology, and Behaviour, pp. 273-295. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Garber, P. A. and Teaford, M. F. 1986. Body weights in mixed species troops of Saguinus mystax mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons in Amazonian Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 71: 331-336.
Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hardie, S. M. 1998. Mixed species tamairn groups (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus) in northern Bolivia. Primate Report 5: 39-62.
Heltne, P. G., Freese, C. H. and Whitesides, G. 1975. A field survey of non human primate populations in Bolivia. Final Report. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1989. Algunos aspectos de la conservación de primates no-humanos en Colombia. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), La Primatología en Latinoamerica, pp. 67-100. WWF-U.S., Washington, DC, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1968. Metachromism or the principle of evolutionary change in mammalian tegumentary colors. Evolution 22: 556–575.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World monkeys (Platyrrhini), with an introduction to Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Heymann, E. W. 2000. Field observations of the golden-mantled tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus, on the Río Curaray, Peruvian Amazonia. Folia Primatologica 71(6): 392-398.
Heymann, E. W. and Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 2000. The behavioural ecology of mixed species troops of callitrichine primates. Biological Reviews 75: 169-190.
Hodun, A., Snowdon, C. T. and Soini, P. 1981. Subspecific variation in the long calls of the tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 57: 97-110.
Hutterer, R., Verhaagh, M., Diller, J. and Podloucky, R. 1995. An inventory of mammals observed at Panguana Biological Station, Amazonian Peru. Ecotropica 1(1): 3-20.
Izawa, K. and Bejarano, G. 1981. Distribution ranges and patterns of nonhuman primates in western Pando, Bolivia. Kyoto University Overseas Research Reports of New World Monkeys 1981: 1-12.
Johns, A. D. 1985. Primates and forest exploitation at Tefé, Brazilian Amazonia. Primate Conservation 6: 27-29.
Johns, A. D. 1986. Recomendações para a implantação de uma unidade de preservação na área do rio Tefé. Unpublished report, World Wildlife Fund-US, Washington, DC, USA.
Lopes, M. A. and Ferrari, S. F. 1994. Foraging behavior of a tamarin group (Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli) and interactions with marmosets (Callithrix emiliae). Journal of Primatology 15(3): 373-387.
Mittermeier, R. A, Bailey, R. C. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1978. Conservation status of the Callitrichidae in Brazilian Amazonia, Suriname and French Guiana. In: D. G. Kleiman (ed.), Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae, pp. 137-146. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of the Primates in the British Museum (Natural History). Part I. British Museum (Natural History), London, UK.
Peres, C. A. 1990. Effects of hunting on western Amazonian primate communities. Biological Conservation 54: 47-49.
Peres, C. A. 1991. Ecology of Mixed-Species Groups of Tamarins in Amazonian Terra Firme Forests. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge.
Peres, C. A. 1992. Consequences of joint territoriality in a mixed species group of tamarin monkeys. Behaviour 123(3-4): 220-246.
Peres, C. A. 1992. Prey capture benefits in a mixed species group of Amazonian tamarins, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. mystax. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 31: 339-347.
Peres, C. A. 1993. Diet and feeding ecology of saddle-back (Saguinus fuscicollis) and moustached (S. mystax) tamarins in an Amazonian terra firme forest. Journal of Zoology (London) 230: 567-592.
Peres, C. A. 1993. Notes on the primates of the Juruá River, western Brazilian Amazina. Folia Primatologica 61: 97-103.
Peres, C. A. 1993. Structure and spatial organization of an Amazonian terra firme forest primate community. Journal of Tropical Ecology 9: 259–276.
Peres, C. A. 1997. Primate community structure at twenty western Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13: 381-405.
Peres, C. A., Patton, J. L. and da Silva, M. N. F. 1996. Riverine barriers and gene flow in Amazonian saddle-back tamarins. Folia Primatologica 67(3): 113–124.
Pook, A. G. and Pook, G. 1982. Polyspecific association between Saguinus fuscicollis, Saguinus labiatus, Callimico goeldii and other primates in north-western Bolivia. Folia Primatologica 38: 196-216.
Porter, L. M. 2001. Benefits of polyspecific associations for the Goeldi monkey (Callimico goeldii). American Journal of Primatology 54(3): 143-158.
Porter, L. M. 2007. The Behavioral Ecology of Callimicos and Tamarins in Northwestern Bolivia. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1993. Systematics, distributions, and some notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In: A. B. Rylands (ed.), Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour and Ecology, pp. 11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Snowdon, C. T. and Soini, P. 1988. The tamarins, genus Saguinus. In: R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, pp. 223-298. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Soini, P. 1987. Ecology of the saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri on the Río Pacaya, northeastern Peru. Folia Primatologica 49: 11-32.
Soini, P. 1990. Ecologia y dinamica poblacional de pichico común Saguinus fuscicollis (Callitrichidae, Primates). La Primatología en el Perú. Investigaciones Primatológicas (1973-1985), pp. 202-253. Proyecto Peruano de Primatología “Manuel Moro Sommo”, Lima, Peru.
Soini, P. 1990. Nota sobre el hallazgo de una subespecie adicional de Saguinus fuscicollis (Callitrichidae, Primates) para el Perú. La Primatología en el Perú. Investigaciones Primatológicas (1973-1985), pp. 314-317. Proyecto Peruano de Primatología “Manuel Moro Sommo”, Lima, Peru.
Soini, P. and Cóppula, M. 1981. Ecología y dinamica poblacional del pichico, Saguinus fuscicollis (Primates: Callitrichidae). Informe de Pacaya, No. 4. Ordeloreto, Dirección Regional de Agricultura y Alimentación, Iquitos.
Soini, P., Aquino, R., Encarnación, F., Moya, L. and Tapia, J. 1989. Situation of the primates in the Peruvian Amazon. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), In La Primatologia en Latinoamerica, pp. 13-21. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Tagliaro, C. H., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Schneider M. P. C., Vallinoto, M. and Stanhope, M. 2005. Molecular phyologeny of the genus Saguinus (Platyrrhini, Primates) based on the ND1 mitochondrial gene and implications for conservation. Genetic and Molecular Biology 28(1): 46-53.
Thorington Jr., R. W. 1988. Taxonomic status of Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878). American Journal of Primatology 15: 367-371.
Tirira, D.G. 2007. Guía de Campo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Ediciones Murciélago Blanco. Publicación especial sobre los mamíferos del Ecuador 6, Quito, Ecuador.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 2003. New species from Amazonia. Available at: http://amazonnewspecies.com.
Vivo, M. de. 1985. On some monkeys from Rondônia, Brasil (Primates: Callitrichidae, Cebidae). Papeis Avulsos, Zoologia, São Paulo 4: 1-31.
Yoneda, M. 1981. Ecological studies of Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus with reference to habitat segregation and height preference. Kyoto University Overseas Research Report of New World Monkeys: 43-50.
|Citation:||Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A. 2008. Saguinus fuscicollis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39947A10295229.Downloaded on 17 October 2017.|