|Scientific Name:||Saguinus nigricollis|
|Species Authority:||(Spix, 1823)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The taxonomy of Saguinus nigricollis follows Hershkovitz (1982).
Saguinus n. graellsi is listed as a full species by Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) and Defler (1994), on the basis that it is sympatric with a population of S. nigricollis in the region of Puerto Leguízamo in southern Colombia. Hernández-Camacho and Defler (1991) listed it as a subspecies of S. nigricollis, agreeing with Hershkovitz (1977). It was listed as a distinct species by Groves (2001, 2005) following the supposition of its sympatry with S. n. nigricollis. However, Defler (2003, 2004) has indicated that the occurrence of S. n. nigricollis north of the Rio Putumayo is doubtful.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||de la Torre, S. & Stevenson, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Least Concern due to its adaptability to disturbed habitats, presumed large populations, and occurrence in a number of protected areas. It is not believed to be declining at a rate sufficient to qualify for a threatened category.
|Range Description:||There are three recognized subspecies:
Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis
Hershkovitz (1977) recorded that it occurs between the Rios Solimões-Amazonas and Içá-Putumayo, at least as far west as the mouth of the Río Napo. Aquino and Encarnación (1994) documented its occurrence west from there along the left (north) bank of the Río Napo in Peru, upstream at least as far as the Ríos Aguarico, Lagartococha and Güepi on the border with Ecuador, where it is replaced by S. n. graellsi, as was proposed by Hershkovitz (1982). In Colombia, its distribution is poorly known, but Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) and Defler (1994) reported that it occurs north of the Río Putumayo to the Río Caquetá, and east to the Brazilian border, indicating its, as yet undocumented, presence between the Rios Japurá and Iça in Brazil (Hershkovitz 1977, 1982). However, evidence for its occurrence north of the Río Putumayo in Colombia is sparse. Its supposed presence in two large protected areas in this region (La Paya National Natural Park and Cahuinarí National Natural Park) has not yet been confirmed (Defler 1994). Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) reported that they observed S. n. nigricollis groups mixed with S. f. fuscus at Puerto Leguízamo, located on the north bank of the upper Putumayo. According to them S. n. graellsi is sympatric with S. n. nigricollis at Puerto Leguízamo, and west from there between the Ríos Putumayo and Caquetá. For this reason, they argued that the form graellsi should be considered a distinct species (see also Defler 1994). Otherwise the only evidence is that of a young specimen collected in 1960 by H. Granados and H. Arévalo labeled “Caquetá-Putumayo”, as reported by Hershkovitz (1982) who pointed out that it may have been taken from the left bank of the Río Putumayo. Hershkovitz (1982) argued that the evidence for the occurrence of S. n. nigricollis north of the Río Putumayo is not yet conclusive. In this case, the possibility remains that its range is restricted to the right bank of the Río Putumayo. This being so, Hershkovitz (1982) pointed out that there would be a gap between the ranges of S. n. hernandezi (north of the Río Caquetá) and S. n. graellsi (south of the Río Putumayo). Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976), however, give place S. n. graellsi as occurring north of the upper reaches of the Río Putumayo, north to the Río Caquetá, in which case the ranges would be continuous with S. n. hernandezi north of the Río Caquetá. The exact range of S. n. nigricollis in Colombia remains unclear. North of the Río Putumayo, S. n. nigricollis would be sympatric with S. fuscicollis fuscus.
Saguinus nigricollis graellsi
Saguinus nigricollis graellsi occurs in the upper Amazon, in southern Colombia, eastern Ecuador and north-eastern Peru. Its range is not well known, however, and our interpretation of the current evidence indicates that it is probably more restricted than is indicated by Hershkovitz (1977, 1982). According to Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976), in Colombia it occurs south from right (south) bank of the upper Río Caquetá to the Ríos Sucumbios and Putumayo on the border with Ecuador. Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) recorded that it occurred in the neighborhood of Puerto Asís on the upper Putumayo, east as far as Puerto Leguízamo. These authors informed that S. n. graellsi is sympatric with S. n. nigricollis in the region of Puerto Leguízamo, and the form graellsi should, therefore, be considered a distinct species, although doubts remain. Defler (1989, 1994) argued for this possibility, although Hernández-Camacho and Defler (1988) listed it as a subspecies of S. n. nigricollis. Hershkovitz (1982) argued that there is no definite evidence for S. n. graellsi occurring north of Ecuador, and suggested that Black-mantle Tamarins reported by Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) may be either of the other two subspecies. He restricted its northern limit to the Ríos Putumayo and Sucumbios, indicating as such that it does not occur in Colombia at all. According to Hershkovitz (1982), in Ecuador S. n. graellsi extends throughout a large part of the Amazon region, south from the Río Putumayo, west to the foothills of the Andes. The altitudinal range is between 100 m and 1,000 m (Hershkovitz 1982). Hershkovitz (1977) suggested that the range in Ecuador may extend as far south as the right bank of the upper Río Santiago, although in a later publication (Hershkovitz 1982) he was more conservative, giving the north (right) bank of the Río Pastaza as the limit. The only specimens from the Ríos Pastaza and Tigre are from their uppermost reaches in Ecuador.
According to Aquino and Encarnación (1994), eastwards, S. n. graellsi extends into Peru along the right (south) banks of the Río Napo to its mouth, and restricted to the north (right) banks of the Ríos Amazonas and Marañón. However, S. n. graellsi has not been recorded in Peru except for the banks of the Napo and Curaray, and its occurrence in the basins of the northern tributaries of the Río Marañón has yet to be confirmed. Aquino and Encarnación (1994) reported that S. n. graellsi has never been found along the Rios Tigre and Pastaza, for example, despite a number of primatological surveys along these rivers between 1981 and 1986. The known distribution in Peru is restricted to the region between the Ríos Nanay and Napo. Although occurring north of the Río Napo in Ecuador, it extends east only as far the Ríos Güepí and Lagartococha on the frontier with Peru (Hershkovitz 1982), where it is replaced by S. n. nigricollis (Hershkovitz 1982; Aquino and Encarnación 1994). It has been recorded recently in a number of localities in northern Ecuador between the Ríos Napo and Putumayo, including the basins of the Río Aguarico, Cuyabeno and Pacuyacu (S. de la Torre, in litt. 1996). However, it has not been found in the Yasuní National Park, covering the basin of the Rio Yasuní, where it would seem that only S. tripartitus and S. fuscicollis lagonotus occur (Albuja 1994; S. de la Torre, in litt., 1996). Although Hershkovitz (1977) argued for the restriction of the type locality to the right bank of the Río Napo above the mouth of the Rio Curaray, no definite records or specimens are available for S. n. graellsi in Ecuador between these rivers (Hershkovitz 1977, 1982; Albuja 1994), and it would seem probable that only two Saguinus species occur there: S. tripartitus and S. fuscicollis lagonotus.
The distribution of S. n. graellsi therefore has yet to be clearly defined. However, if it occurs in Colombia it would be sympatric with S. fuscicollis fuscus, and in Ecuador and Peru it is sympatric, at least in some areas such as the upper reaches of the Rios Napo, Curaray, Pindo Yacu and Pastaza, with S. fuscicollis lagonotus (see Hershkovitz 1982; Aquino and Encarnación 1994). It would appear that it does not occur between the Ríos Curaray and Napo in Peru and Ecuador, and is not, therefore, sympatric with S. tripartitus. Tirira (2007) reported that the limjits of its range in Ecuador are poorly defined. In the north of the country, it is not known if it reaches the ríos Sucumbíos and Putumayo, and that the identity of the tamarins to the south of the Río Napo in the provinces of Oreallana and Pastaza is uncertain.
Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi
Saguinus n. hernandezi occurs in eastern Colombia between the Ríos Caquetá, Caguan, and Orteguaza and the base of the Cordillera Oriental, Intendencia de Caquetá (Hershkovitz 1982). K. Izawa (in Hershkovitz 1982) reported that S. n. hernandezi was not seen on the north bank of the Río Caquetá, but it has been found to the north and north-east of the Caquetá in the Department of Meta, Angostura I, on the right bank of the Río Guayabero (Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1988; Tovar 1994). Presumably it occurs at least along the eastern slopes of the Andes from the headwaters of the Río Caguan to the Río Guayabero. The altitudinal range is 150-500 m above sea level (Hershkovitz 1982).
Native:Brazil (Amazonas); Colombia (Colombia (mainland)); Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland)); Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Izawa (1978) calculated an ecological density for S. n. hernandezi on the Río Peneya, Colombia, of 1-24 individuals/km², and a crude density of 10-13 individuals/km².
Population density estimated for S. n. graellsi in the Cuyabeno Faunal Production Reserve, Ecuador, by De la Torre et al. (1995a) was 22-33 individuals/km². Delfer (2004) recorded crude denties at four sites aloing the upper Río Purité, Colombia, that ranged from 4-15 individuals/km².
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Black-mantled Tamarin occurs in Amazonian lowland, seasonally flooded forest, dry forests in Colombia, remnant forests or fringe patches and secondary forest (Izawam 1978; Snowdon and Soini 1988; Tovar 1994; De la Torre et al. 1995a). Tovar (1992) observed S. n. hernandezi on the south bank of the Río Guayabero in highly seasonal dry forest and spiny-leaved scleromophic scub (arrabal). In Ecuador, Tirira (2007) describes the habitat of S. n. graellsi as tropical and subtropical humid forests between 200 and 1,300 m above sea level, although most commonly found below 400 m above sea level.
Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects) (Izawa, 1978). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet. The dentition of the tamarins (Saguinus and Leontopithecus) does not provide for gouging and they eat gums only when readily available.
Tamarins live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals, but usually 2-8. Tovar (1994) studied a group which ranged in size from 7 to 11. Eight groups of S. n. graellsi observed by de la Torre et al. (1992, 1995a) ranged in size from 2-9. Ten groups of S. n. hernandezi observed by Izawa (1978) averaged 6.3 individuals. Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. One Saguinus n. graellsi group of 7-9 was found to use a home range of 56.2 ha in the dry season and 41.7 ha in the wet season (De la Torre et al. 1995a).
Tamarins are monomorphic - exhibiting only minor differences in body and canine size.
Adult males weigh 468 g (n=8) (Hershkovitz 1977; Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1985; Defler 2004)
Adult females weigh 484 g (n=6) (Hershkovitz 1977; Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1985; Defler 2004)
Adult males and females 390-470 g (Tirira 2007)
Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi
Adult female holotype H&B 22.0, TL 34.0 cm (Hershkovitz, 1977).
Saguinus n. nigricollis is regarded as common in Peru by Soini et al. (1989), and although it was heavily exploited for export for biomedical research in the 1960/1970s, it was reported by Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) to be common in Colombia too. Its status in Brazil is unknown.
Saguinus n. graellsi in Ecuador remains widespread north of the Río Napo, but its distribution overlaps a region that is experiencing high rates of forest loss.
Saguinus n. hernandezi, on the other hand, has a small distribution restricted to Colombia, but, although there is little information available regarding its conservation status, it occurs in the Tinigua National Park, is evidently adaptable, and there is no reason to believe that there are any major threats to its survival in the short term (Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1985; Defler 1994).
This species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It occurs in a number of protected areas.
Saguinus n. nigricollis
If it occurs north of the Río Içá in Brazil, it may be present in the 745,830-ha Juamí-Japurá Ecological Station. In Colombia, it probably occurs in the Amacayacú National Natural Park, and possibly in the La Paya National Natural Park and the Cahuinarí National Natural Park (Defler 1994).
Saguinus. n. graellsi
Limoncocha Biological Reserve (4,613 ha) (S. de la Torre, in litt. 1996; Tirira 2007)
Cuyabeno Faunal Production Reserve (655,781 ha) (de la Torre et al. 1995b; Tirira 2007)
Sumaco-Napo Galeras National Park (Tirira 2007)
Cayambé-Coca Faunal Ecological Reserve (350,000 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Cofán-Bermejo Faunal Ecologicla Reserve (Tirira 2007)
None (Aquino and Encarnación 1994)
Saguinus. n. hernadezi
Tinigua National Park (Tovar 1994)
It is not known if it occurs in the Cordillera de los Picachos National Natural Park to the north of Tinigua, and also on the west bank of the Río Guayabero.
Albúja, L. 1994. Nuevos registros de Saguinus tripartitus en la Amazonia ecuatoriana. Neotropical Primates 2(2): 8-10.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.
Defler, T. R. 1989. The status and some ecology of primates in the Colombian Amazon. Primate Conservation 10: 51-56.
Defler, T. R. 1994. La conservación de primates en Colombia. Trianea 5: 255-287.
Defler, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Conservation International, Bogota.
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.
de la Torre, S., Campos, F. and de Vries, T. 1992. Seasonal reduction in the home ranges and birth peak bimodality of Saguinus nigricollis graellsi (Primates: Callitrichidae) in Amazonian Ecuador. Abstracts of the XIVth Congress of the International Primatological Society: 316. Strasbourg.
de la Torre, S., Campos, F. and de Vries, T. 1995. Home range and birth seasonality of Saguinus nigricollis graellsi in Ecuadorian Amazonia. American Journal of Primatology 37: 39-56.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1988. Some aspects of the conservation of non-human primates in Colombia. Primate Conservation 6: 42-50.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1989. Algunos aspectos de la conservación de primates no-humanos en Colombia. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), La Primatología en Latinoamerica, pp. 67-100. WWF-U.S., Washington, DC, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World monkeys (Platyrrhini), with an introduction to Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1982. Subspecies and geographic distribution of black-mantle tamarins Saguinus nigricollis Spix (Primates: Callitrichidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 95(4): 647-656.
Izawa, K. 1978. A field study of the ecology and behavior of the black-mantle tamarin (Saguinus nigricollis). Primates 19: 241-274.
Snowdon, C. T. and Soini, P. 1988. The tamarins, genus Saguinus. In: R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, pp. 223-298. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Soini, P., Aquino, R., Encarnación, F., Moya, L. and Tapia, J. 1989. Situation of the primates in the Peruvian Amazon. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), In La Primatologia en Latinoamerica, pp. 13-21. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Tirira, D.G. 2007. Guía de Campo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Ediciones Murciélago Blanco. Publicación especial sobre los mamíferos del Ecuador 6, Quito, Ecuador.
Torre, S., de la, Utreras, V. and Campos, F. 1995. An overview of primatological studies in Ecuador: Primates of the Cuyabeno Reserve. Neotropical Primates 3(4): 169-170.
Tovar, N. V. 1994. Activity patterns of Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi at the Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia 9: 23-31.
|Citation:||de la Torre, S. & Stevenson, P. 2008. Saguinus nigricollis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 September 2014.|
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