|Scientific Name:||Callicebus barbarabrownae|
|Species Authority:||Hershkovitz, 1990|
Callicebus personatus subspecies barbarabrownae Hershkovitz, 1990
|Taxonomic Notes:||Described by Hershkovitz (1988; 1990) as a subspecies of Callicebus personatus. Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) argued that the titis of the Atlantic forest should be considered species rather than subspecies of C. personatus. They listed C. nigrifrons, C. personatus, C. melanochir and C. coimbrai besides C. barbarabrownae. According to Printes (2007), the name Callicebus barbarabrownae Hershkovitz, 1990 may prove to be a junior synonym of Callicebus gigot (Spix, 1823), according to the principle of priority.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Veiga, L.M., Printes, R.C., Rylands, A.B., Kierulff, C.M., de Oliveira, M.M. & Mendes, S.L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Critically Endangered due to its small population size (estimated to be less than 250 mature individuals in the wild), which is severely fragmented in small subpopulations (none exceeding 50 mature individuals), and which is continuing to decline extensive ongoing deforestation. The species is not known to occur in any protected areas.
|Range Description:||Endemic to Brazil, the Blond Titi Monkey occurs in the states of Bahia (Hershkovitz 1990) and Sergipe at approximately 240-900 m asl (Printes 2007) from the Rio Paraguaçu river basin to the border between the states of Bahia and Sergipe along the margins of the Rio Real. Prior to the survey of Printes (2005, 2007), this species was known from only four localities: Lamarão (type locality), Formosa, Bandeira de Melo and Mirorós in the municipality of Ibipeba all in the State of Bahia (Hershkovitz 1990; Marinho-Filho and Veríssimo 1997). However, the taxon has now been confirmed at over 55 sites in Bahia and Sergipe (Printes 2007; Estrela et al. 2007). In recent surveys (195 km) undertaken in Lamarão in Bahia, the species was registered in four locations, all caatinga scrubland fragments (Estrela et al. 2007), some considerably smaller than previously estimated (A. Estrela pers. comm.). In the past, the coastal forests of the ‘Agreste’ in eastern Bahia probably supported large populations; however, this type of vegetation is rare today (Printes et al. in prep.). Populations have been located in three main regions: Agreste, Lamarão and north of the Chapada Diamantina. No titis were recorded in the region west of Araci and Nova Soure, which is dominated by the Cerrado. However, C. barbarabrownae was recorded in the Caatinga of the moister uplands northeast of Araci (Mandacaru, Mirandela and Serra Branca). The species was also recorded in Caatinga habitat further north as far as the Salitre river, 170 km from Juazeiro, but titis were not recorded west of the Chapada Diamantina (Printes 2007; Printes et al. in prep.)
Callicebus melanochir replaces C. barbarabrownae in the region known as the ‘Recôncavo Baiano’ (south of the Paraguaçu river in the municipality of Igrapiuna). The lower Paraguaçu forms the limit between the geographic ranges of C. coimbrai, restricted to the left or north bank, and C. melanochir, found on the right bank. Further west, in the region of Feira de Santana, C. barbarabrownae occurs on both banks of the Paraguaçu. There appears to be no physical barrier between the eastern limit of the range of C. barbarabrownae and the western limit of C. coimbrai (Printes et al. in prep.).
The extent of occurrence of the Blond Titi Monkey is estimated to cover an area of some 291,438 km², but its area of occupancy is only thought to be 2,636 km² (Printes 2007; Printes et al. in prep.). Approximately 90% of all records are between 37º and 41ºW and 09º and 13ºS (Printes 2007).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The estimated minimum population is 260 individuals (Printes 2007).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Occurs in caatinga (dry scrubland) with a preferences for dense arboreal caatinga (Printes 2007). There are no available data on ecology.|
|Major Threat(s):||Occurs in a region of Brazil with widespread deforestation and habitat fragmentation. Cattle ranching, agriculture and continuing urbanisation are the main threats. The area is characterized by rapid development facilitated by an extensive network of highways. Other threats include potential dangers from roads and power-lines and predation by domestic pets. This species occurs in small fragmented populations that are exposed to synergistic genetic and demographic risks. Hunting pressure needs to be ascertained, but it is probably moderate due to the small body size. During surveys, a few individuals were found being kept as pets (Printes et al. in prep).|
|Conservation Actions:||The species is not found in any officially protected area. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.|
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Câmara, I. de G. 1996. Os Limites Originais do Bioma Mata Atlântica na Região Nordeste do Brasil. Fundação Brasileira para a Conservação da Natureza, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Estrela, A. R., Nogueira, E. M. S. and Porfírio, S. 2007. Callicebus barbarabrownae (Hershkovitz, 1990) (Primates: Pitheciidae) de Lamarão/BA: Resultados Preliminares. XII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, 2007, Belo Horizonte. XII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1988. Origin, speciation, and distribution of South American titi monkeys, genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140(1): 240-272.
Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana: Zoology 55: 1-109.
Kobayashi, S. 1995. A phylogenetic study of titi monkeys, genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: I. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.
Kobayashi, S and Langguth, A. 1999. A new species of titi monkeys, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil (Primates, Cebidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 16(2): 531-551.
Marinho Filho, J. and Veríssimo, E. W. 1997. The rediscovery of Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae in northeastern Brazil with a new western limit to its distribution. Primates 38(4): 429-433.
Printes, R. C. 2005. Novos registros sobre a distribuição do guigó-da-caatinga Callicebus barbarabrownae (Hershkovitz, 1990) e novo limite sul de Callicebus coimbrai (Kobayashi & Langguth, 1999). XI Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, Resumos. Porto Alegre.
Printes, R. C. 2007. Avaliação taxonômica, distribuição e status do guigó-da-Caatinga Callicebus barbarabrownae Hershkovitz, 1990 (Primates: Pitheciidae). Ph.D. Thesis, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
Printes, R. C., Jerusalinsky, L., Cardoso de Sousa, M. and Rodrigues, L. R. R. In prep.. Zoogeography, Genetic Variation and Conservation of the Callicebus personatus Group. In: A. A. Barnett, L. M. Veiga, S. F. Ferrari and M. A. Norconk (eds), Evolutionary Biology and Conservation of Titis, Sakis and Uacaris, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R.A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10: 1-52.
|Citation:||Veiga, L.M., Printes, R.C., Rylands, A.B., Kierulff, C.M., de Oliveira, M.M. & Mendes, S.L. 2008. Callicebus barbarabrownae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 March 2015.|
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