Callicebus ornatus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Pitheciidae

Scientific Name: Callicebus ornatus
Species Authority: (Gray, 1866)
Common Name(s):
English Ornate Tití Monkey, Ornate Titi Monkey, Ornate Titi
Callicebus cupreus subspecies ornatus (Gray, 1866)
Taxonomic Notes: Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) and van Roosmalen et al. (2002) recognize five species groups – cupreus, donacophilus, moloch, personatus and torquatus. According to van Roosmalen et al. (2002), the cupreus group contains C. caligatus, C. cupreus, C. discolor, C. dubius, C. ornatus, and C. stephennashi.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c; B1ab(ii,iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Veiga. L. M. & Palacios, E.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable in light of a continued decline inferred from more than a 30% loss of habitat in the past 3 generations (24 years) due to deforestation from illicit crops and expanding human settlements. In addition, the extent of occurrence for the species approximates 20,000 km², is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in area of occupancy and habitat quality.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2003 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in eastern Colombia, in the department of Cundinamarca (Medina) north as far as the lower Río Upía/Río Meta, and south into the department of Meta, along the base of the Cordillera Oriental and the Sierra de la Macarena to the Río Guayabero/upper Río Guaviare. It is the only member of the cupreus and moloch group occurring north of the Rios Amazonas/Solimões/Napo axis, in the upper Río Orinoco basin and is separated from the nearest other member of the cupreus group (Callicebus discolor) in the south by at least 350 km (van Roosmalen et al. 2002).
Countries occurrence:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Robinson (1977) recorded a population density of 5 individuals/km².
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.) are known to occur in a wide range of habitats, although some species exhibit habitat preferences, for example C. lucifer is reported to prefer white-sand forests (E. Heymann pers. comm. 2008), and C. donacophilus drier forests (Ferrari et al. 2000; R. Wallace pers. comm.). Members of the C. moloch and C. cupreus groups are considered tolerant of habitat disturbance caused by human activity or seasonal flooding (van Roosmalen et al. 2002). Callicebus ornatus typically occurs in lowland tropical forests (canopy 15-20 m) (Defler 2004) and disturbed habitats (Mason 1968).

The ecology of this species has been studied in the department of Meta by Mason (1965, 1966a, 1966b, 1968, 1971) and Robinson (1977, 1979a, 1979b, 1981, 1982a,b). Polanco (1992) and Porras (2000) studied a population near the Duda River.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species occurs in an area subject to intense human colonization that has been subject to widespread habitat destruction and fragmentation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in La Macarena National Park and Tinigua National Park. Although some populations are found within protected areas, guerilla activity makes it difficult to monitor these areas (T. Defler, pers comm.).
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.2. War, civil unrest & military exercises
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Defler, T.R. 1994. La conservación de primates en Colombia. Trianea 5: 255-287.

Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.

Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

Hernández-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1989. Algunos aspectos de la conservación de primates no-humanos en Colombia. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), La Primatología en Latinoamerica, pp. 67-100. WWF-U.S., Washington, DC, USA.

Hershkovitz, P. 1988. Origin, speciation, and distribution of South American titi monkeys, genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140(1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana: Zoology 55: 1-109.

Kobayashi, S. 1995. A phylogenetic study of titi monkeys, genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: I. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Kobayashi, S and Langguth, A. 1999. A new species of titi monkeys, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil (Primates, Cebidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 16(2): 531-551.

Mason, W. A. 1965. Territorial behavior in Callicebus monkeys. American Zoologist 5: 675.

Mason, W. A. 1966. Communication in the titi monkey Callicebus. Journal of the Zoological Society of London 150: 77-127.

Mason, W. A. 1966. Social organization of the South American monkey, Callicebus moloch: A preliminary report. Tulane Studies in Zoology 13: 23-28.

Mason, W. A. 1968. Use of space by Callicebus groups. In: P. C. Jay (ed.), Primates: Studies in Adaptation and Variability, pp. 398-419. Academic Press, New York, USA.

Mason, W. A. 1971. Field and laboratory studies of social organization in Saimiri and Callicebus. In: L. A. Rosenblum (ed.), Primate Behavior: Developments in Field and Laboratory Research, pp. 107-137. Academic Press, New York, USA.

Moynihan, M. 1966. Communication in the titi monkey, Callicebus. Journal of Zooogy 150: 71-127.

Moynihan, M. 1967. Comparative aspects of communication in New World primates. Weidenfeld & Nicolsen, London, UK.

Moynihan, M. 1976. The New World Primates. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Norconk, M. A. 2007. Saki, uakaris, and titi monkeys: behavioral diversity in a radiation of primate seed predators. In: C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C.MacKinnon, M. Panger and S. K. Bearder (eds), Primates in Perspectives, pp. 123-138. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.

Polanco, R. 1992. Aspectos etológicos y ecológicos de Callicebus cupreus ornatus Gray, 1970 (Primates: Cebidae) en el Parque National Natural Tiniguas, La Macarena, Meta, Colombia. Unpublished Bachelor’s Thesis, Biology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Porras, M. 2000. Comunicación vocal y su relación a actividades, estructura social y contexto comportamental en Callicebus cupreus ornatus. A Primatología no Brasil 7: 265-274.

Robinson, J. G. 1977. The vocal regulation of spacing by groups of titi monkeys, Callicebus moloch. Ph.D. Thesis, University of North Carolina.

Robinson, J. G. 1979. An analysis of the organization of vocal communication in the titi monkey Callicebus moloch. Zeitschrift der Tierpsychologie 49: 381-405.

Robinson, J. G. 1979. Vocal regulation of space by groups of titi monkeys, Callicebus moloch. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 5: 1-15.

Robinson, J. G. 1981. Vocal regulation of inter- and intragroup spacing during boundary encounters in the titi monkey, Callicebus moloch. Primates 22: 161-172.

Robinson, J. G. 1982. Intrasexual competition and mate choice in primates. American Journal of Primatology 1: 131-144.

Robinson, J. G. 1982. Vocal system regulating within group spacing. In: C. T. Snowdon, C. H. Brown and M. Peterson (eds), Primate Communication, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R.A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10: 1-52.

Citation: Veiga. L. M. & Palacios, E. 2008. Callicebus ornatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39928A10290821. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.
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